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For credit, please write complete answers. Biology Warm Up. All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells. 1. What are the advantages of a one-celled organism?

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Biology warm up

For credit, please write complete answers.

Biology Warm Up

All living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are composed of only one cell. Other organisms are made up of many cells.

1. What are the advantages of a one-celled organism?

2. What are the advantages of an organism that is made up of many cells?

3. Steve McQueen starred in a movie about a giant one-celled organism. THE BLOB was a single cell that grew to the size of New York City. Why do you think that real life one-celled creatures are usually very small?

Now, Read and take notes section 7.2


Biology warm up 1347195

Life is Cellular Scavenger Hunt

Answer these key questions. You can find them in section 7.1.

1. Explain cell theory:

2. Make a sketch of a prokaryote and a eukaryote and label the differences.

3. What features do all cells (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) share?

4. What characteristics are unique to eukaryotes?


Cell structure and function
Cell Structure and Function

7.1 Life is cellular

Goals

  • Explain what cell theory is

  • Name the basic cell structures

  • Describe prokaryotes and eukaryotes


The cell theory
The Cell Theory

7.1 Life is cellular

  • All living things are composed of cells

  • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things

  • New cells are produced from existing cells


Basic cell structures

  • Membrane thin flexible barrier around ALL cells

  • Cell Wall stronger more rigid barrier around the membrane of SOME cells (esp. plants)

  • Nucleus Large interior structure of SOME cells containing genetic material and controlling cell functions

  • CytoplasmThe fluid inside the membrane, but outside of the nucleus ALL CELLS

Basic Cell Structures


Prokaryotes eukaryotes
Prokaryotes Eukaryotes

Nucleus

Organelles

Single-celled or multicellular organisms

Include: All plants, animals, and fungi

many microorganisms

Smaller

Simpler

Have membrane and cytoplasm

No nucleus

Include: Bacteria

Blue-green Algae


Prokaryote v eukaryote
Prokaryote v Eukaryote

Prokaryotic Cell

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Eukaryotic Cell

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Organelles


Cell model project
Cell Model Project

Assignment: Create a 3-dimensional model of either a plant cell or an animal cell.

Both the cell and major organelles must be 3-dimensional.

Organelles must be clearly labeled with labels attached directly to the organelles.


Cell model project1
Cell Model Project

FAQ’s:

Of what shall I make my model?

No messy or perishable items (please, no fresh fruits or vegetables), Successful models from past years have been made of materials including:

beans, noodles, playdough, bread dough (baked), dried fruit, nuts, clay, wire, Styrofoam, a softball, origami, fimo, pastry dough (cooked), paper bowl, plaster of paris, paper mache, red licorice, multivitamin tablets, colored cellophane and apple seeds. Be creative.

By all means, don’t call up Beverly’s the night before to ask if they have any appropriately-sized Styrofoam balls.

You don’t need to spend money on this to make a great cell model.



Biology warm up 1347195

  • Don’t forget your name and date (1 point)!

  • Organelle Scavenger Hunt

  • You will be doing this activity as a group of 3 or 4

  • As a group decide to draw either a plant or animal cell.

  • As a group, select 8 major organelles to study and include in the poster you will be making (see section 7.2)

  • Divide up the 8 organelles among the group members (2 or 3 organelles each)

  • Each group member will take study and prepare to teach the group about his/her assigned organelles


Biology warm up 1347195

  • Don’t forget your name and date (1 point)!

  • Each group member needs a paper.

  • Organelle Scavenger Hunt

  • Fold your paper in half lengthwise, then fold it in half crosswise.

  • Label each of the 8 rectangles you have created (4 on the front, 4 on the back) with the name of one cell structure from chapter 7.2 that your group studied.

  • Teach each other. In each box, make a drawing of the organelle, and write a description of its form and function

  • Make a poster: Now, working as a group, make one poster labeled, “Plant Cell,” or “Animal Cell.”

  • Be sure to include labeled drawings of all the organelles you studied and their functions.

  • Be sure that you have included and labeled structures which distinguish your cell as a plant or animal cell.


Cell structure and function1
Cell Structure and Function

7.2 Cell Structures

Goals

  • Describe the main function of the cell wall

  • Describe the function of the nucleus

  • Identify main roles of the cytoskeleton

  • Describe the functions of the major cell organelles


Plant cell
PLANT CELL

Vacuole

Smooth endoplasmic

reticulum

Ribosome

(free)

Chloroplast

Ribosome

(attached)

Cell wall

Cell

Membrane

Nuclear

envelope

Nucleolus

Golgi apparatus

Nucleus

Mitochondrian

Rough endoplasmic reticulum


Animal cell
ANIMAL CELL

Ribosome

(attached)

Nucleolus

Ribosome

(free)

Nucleus

Cell

Membrane

Nuclear

envelope

Mitochondrian

Smooth

endoplasmic

reticulum

Rough

endoplasmic

reticulum

Centrioles

Golgi apparatus


The cell wall
The Cell Wall

  • Main function - protection & support

  • Made of carbohydrate and protein fibers

  • Cellulose

    wood and

    paper


Nucleus

  • Controls cell processes

  • Contains hereditary information DNA

  • Chromosomes and Chromatin DNA & protein disperse as chromatin

    At divisions, chromatin forms chromosomes

  • Nucleolus assembly of ribosomes

  • Nuclear envelope pores through which RNA passes

Nucleus


Cytoskeleton

  • Protein

  • Support

  • Movement of some cells

  • Microtubules hollow tubes maintain cell shape

    cilia

    flagella

  • Control movement of organelles

Cytoskeleton


Cytoskeleton1

Cell membrane

Endoplasmic

reticulum

Microtubule

Microfilament

Ribosomes

Michondrion

Cytoskeleton


Ribosomes

  • Creation of proteins following coded instructions from the nucleus

  • Produced in the nucleolus

  • Proteins produced move to the:

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Membrane system

  • Assembly of cell membrane

  • Modification of proteins

Ribosomes


Golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus

  • Receive proteins from rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Attach carbohydrates and lipids to proteins


Lysosomes
Lysosomes

  • Small

  • Enzyme-filled

  • Break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins

  • Remove debris

  • Digestion


Vacuoles
Vacuoles

  • Storage

    water

    proteins

    salts

    carbohydrates

  • Plants often have one big central vacuole

  • Smaller vacuoles are called vessicles


Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts

  • Plants

  • Photosynthesis

  • Chlorophyll

  • Double-membrane bound


Mitochondria
Mitochondria

  • Metabolism

  • Make high energy compounds from food

  • Double membrane bound


Organelle dna
Organelle DNA

  • Chloroplasts and Mitochondria contain their own DNA

  • Margulis: Are these organelles ancient prokaryotes?(endosymbiotic theory)

  • ALL organelle DNA comes from egg!


Biology warm up 1347195

Provides rigid structure external to the cell membrane

The powerhouse of the cell

Packages proteins and other products

Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane

The site of photosynthesis

Two organelles that have their own DNA apart from cellular DNA

Assembles amino acids into proteins

Recieves polypeptides from the ribosomes. Helps fold them into shape

In animals only. Part of the cytoskeleton

A semipermeable membrane surrounding the cell

Contains the cells genetic information

Movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Taking a substance into the cell by, “pinching off,” a portion of the membrane

Contains enzymes for breaking down large molecules

Cell Review Match UpCopy both columns. Match correct responses. More than one response may be appropriate.

1 Nucleus

2 Lysosome

3 Mitochondrion

4 Diffusion

5 Endocytosis

6 Ribosome

7 Endoplasmic Reticulum

8 Centriole

9 Osmosis

10 Cell Membrane

11 Chloroplast

12 Cell Wall

13 Golgi Body


Cell analogy
Cell Analogy

  • Return to section 7-2 and read, “The Cell as a Factory on page 182

  • What part of the cell could be represented by the factory walls?

  • What part of the cell represents the main office?

  • What roll does the endoplasmic reticulum play in the cell as factory analogy?

  • What about the golgi bodies?

  • Where does the cell/factory get it’s power?

  • Go further: What could be the roll of the chloroplasts? Cell membrane?


Cell analogy1
Cell Analogy

  • Return to section 7-2 and read, “The Cell as a Factory on page 182

  • What part of the cell could be represented by the factory walls?

  • What part of the cell represents the main office?

  • What roll does the endoplasmic reticulum play in the cell as factory analogy?

  • What about the golgi bodies?

  • Where does the cell/factory get it’s power?

  • Go further: What could be the roll of the chloroplasts? Cell membrane?

    Now make up your own analogy for a cell.

    Your analogy will need a control center.

    It will probably involve some sort of product

    It will probably need some source of energy

    Make a list of all the organelles and other cell structure from section 7-2

    Now create a poster to present to the class.


Crossing the membrane review
Crossing the Membrane Review

1. Plant roots are able to take in minerals even though there is already a higher concentration of minerals inside of the root than outside. Is this an example of active or passive transport? How do you know?

2. What is facilitated diffusion? Does facilitated diffusion require the cell to expend energy? Explain.

3. What is the difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport that uses a, “protein pump.”

4. Make two drawings of a cell of the aquatic plant, Elodea. Show one cell in a hypertonic solution of salt water and one in distilled water. Describe what has happened in each and label the cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, cytoplasm and chloroplasts. Label the semipermeable membrane and the direction of net movement of water into or out of the membrane.


Crossing the membrane review1
Crossing the Membrane Review

  • Plant roots are able to take in minerals even though there is already a higher concentration of minerals inside of the root than outside. Is this an example of active or passive transport? How do you know?

    Plant roots taking up minerals from the soil involves moving a substance against the concentration gradient. It takes energy and is therefore active transport.


Crossing the membrane review2
Crossing the Membrane Review

2. What is facilitated diffusion? Does facilitated diffusion require the cell to expend energy? Explain.

In facilitated diffusion, a protein channel is open to a specific molecule which move in or out through the protein channel by diffusion. Since the flow is with the concentration gradient, facilitated diffusion does not require additional energy


Crossing the membrane review3
Crossing the Membrane Review

3. What is the difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport that uses a, “protein pump.”

In active transport, the protein channel actually changes shape in order to force a molecule into or out of the cell against the concentration gradient.


Crossing the membrane review4
Crossing the Membrane Review

4. Make two drawings of a cell of the aquatic plant, Elodea. Show one cell in a hypertonic solution of salt water and one in distilled water. Describe what has happened in each and label the cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, cytoplasm and chloroplasts. Label the semipermeable membrane and the direction of net movement of water into or out of the membrane.


Cell parts and processes review
Cell Parts and Processes Review

  • Cell Parts and Processes Review:

  • Fold a piece of paper into a 4 by 4 grid (16 squares)

  • Use all your resources from chapter 7, Worksheets, warm ups, guided readings, and anything you have in your binder to make up a list of at least 16 terms or concepts from the chapter.

  • Write them on one side of the paper.

  • Cut the paper into 16 flashcards and write study points on the back of each card.

  • Compare your collection to the students sitting next to you. Add more cards to your set as needed.

  • Quiz each other until the end of class.

  • Study your flashcards again for homework tonight.


Comparing cells
Comparing Cells

Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

Golgi apparatus

Endoplasmic

reticulum

Lysosomes

Nucleus

Vacuoles

Cytoskeleton Mitochondria

Cell

membrane

Ribosomes

Cell wall

Small

Circular DNA


Comparing cells1

Draw two intersecting circles, label one, “plant cells,” and the other,

“animal cells.” Without looking at your book or notes, create a proper Venn diagram filling in each segment with organelles that belong to plant cells, animal cells, or both. Then get out your notes to check your work.

Comparing Cells

Plant Cells

Animal Cells


Comparing cells2
Comparing Cells and the other,

Animal Cells

Plant Cells

Cell Wall

Nucleus

Ribosomes

Cell membrane

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Mitochondria

Cytoskeleton

Vacuoles

Lysosomes

Centrioles

Chloroplasts


What am i
What am I? and the other,

  • I assemble amino acids into polypeptides. What am I?

  • I contain the cell’s genetic information. What am I?

  • I hold enzymes that break down large molecules into compounds the cell can use. What am I?

  • I am the type of molecule that is embedded in the cell membrane and allows molecules that would not otherwise be able to pass through the semipermeable membrane to diffuse into or out of the cell.

  • I contain my own organelle DNA apart from the cell’s DNA, and I am not found in animal cells.

  • Surrounding the cell, I am composed of a lipid bilayer.

  • I do the final processing and packaging of macromolecules such as proteins and lipids that are synthesized by the cell.

  • I provide rigid structure external to the cell membrane.

  • I am composed of microtubules and microfilaments.

  • I receive polypeptide chains from the ribosomes and am responsible for folding them into their functional shapes


What am i1
What am I? and the other,

I assemble amino acids into polypeptides. What am I?

I am a ribosome

I contain the cell’s genetic information. What am I?

I am the nucleus

I hold enzymes that break down large molecules into compounds the cell can use.

I am a lysosome

I am the type of molecule that is embedded in the cell membrane and allows molecules that would not otherwise be able to pass through the semipermeable membrane to diffuse into or out of the cell.

I am a protein


What am i2
What am I? and the other,

I contain my own organelle DNA apart from the cell’s DNA, and I am not found in animal cells.

I am a chloroplast.

Surrounding the cell, I am composed of a lipid bilayer.

I am the cell membrane.

I do the final processing and packaging of macromolecules such as proteins and lipids that are synthesized by the cell.

I am a golgi body.

I provide rigid structure external to the cell membrane.

I am the cell wall

I am composed of microtubules and microfilaments.

I am the cytoskeleton (I could be centriole)

I receive polypeptide chains from the ribosomes and am responsible for folding them into their functional shapes.

I am the endoplasmic reticulum