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Fiscal Policy: The Basics PowerPoint Presentation
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Fiscal Policy: The Basics
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  1. Fiscal Policy: The Basics

  2. Fiscal Policy: The Basics Taxes, Purchases of Goods and Services, Government Transfers, and Borrowing

  3. Fiscal Policy: The Basics Taxes, Purchases of Goods and Services, Government Transfers, and Borrowing

  4. (17-1) GDP = C + I + G + X - IM Fiscal Policy: The Basics Taxes, Purchases of Goods and Services, Government Transfers, and Borrowing Social insurance programs are government programs intended to protect families against economic hardship. The Government Budget and Total Spending

  5. Fiscal Policy: The Basics Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy

  6. Fiscal Policy: The Basics Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Expansionary fiscal policy increases aggregate demand. Fiscal policy that increases aggregate demand normally takes one of three forms: ■An increase in government purchases of goods and services, such as the Japanese government’s decision to launch a massive construction program ■ A cut in taxes, such as the one the United States implemented in 2001 ■ An increase in government transfers, such as unemployment benefits

  7. Fiscal Policy: The Basics Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy

  8. Fiscal Policy: The Basics Expansionary and Contractionary Fiscal Policy Contractionary fiscal policy reduces aggregate demand. A Cautionary Note: Lags in Fiscal Policy Many economists caution against an extremely active stabilization policy, arguing that a government that tries too hard to stabilize the economy—through either fiscal policy or monetary policy—can end up making the economy less stable.

  9. Fiscal Policy and the Multiplier Multiplier Effects of an Increase in Government Purchases of Goods and Services

  10. Fiscal Policy and the Multiplier Multiplier Effects of Changes in Government Transfers and Taxes Expansionary or contractionary fiscal policy need not take the form of changes in government purchases of goods and services. Governments can also change transfer payments or taxes.

  11. Fiscal Policy and the Multiplier How Taxes Affect the Multiplier A lump-sum tax does not change when real GDP changes. A proportional tax increases when real GDP increases and decreases when real GDP decreases.

  12. Fiscal Policy and the Multiplier How Taxes Affect the Multiplier Automatic stabilizers are government spending and taxation rules that cause fiscal policy to be expansionary when the economy contracts and contractionary when the economy expands. Discretionary fiscal policy is fiscal policy that is the result of deliberate actions by policy makers rather than of rules.

  13. (17-2) Budget Balance = T– G – TR The Budget Balance The Budget Balance as a Measure of Fiscal Policy The budget balance is the difference between tax revenue and government spending. The budget surplus is the difference between tax revenue and government spending when tax revenue exceeds government spending. The budget deficit is the difference between tax revenue and government spending when government spending exceeds tax revenue.

  14. The Budget Balance The Business Cycle and the Cyclically Adjusted Budget Balance

  15. The Budget Balance The Business Cycle and the Cyclically Adjusted Budget Balance

  16. The Budget Balance The Business Cycle and the Cyclically Adjusted Budget Balance The cyclically adjusted budget balance is an estimate of what the budget balance would be if real GDP were exactly equal to potential output.

  17. The Budget Balance The Business Cycle and the Cyclically Adjusted Budget Balance

  18. The Budget Balance Should the Budget Be Balanced? Most economists don’t think so. They believe that the government should only balance its budget on average—that it should be allowed to run deficits in bad years, offset by surpluses in good years. Yet policy makers concerned about excessive deficits sometimes feel that rigid rules prohibiting—or at least setting an upper limit on—deficits are necessary.

  19. Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt Fiscal years run from October 1 to September 30 and are named by the calendar year in which they end. Public debt is government debt held by individuals and institutions outside the government.

  20. Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt

  21. Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy Problems Posed by Rising Government Debt Crowding out is the negative effect of budget deficits on private investment.

  22. Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy Deficits and Debt in Practice

  23. Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy Deficits and Debt in Practice The debt–GDP ratio is government debt as a percentage of GDP.

  24. Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy Deficits and Debt in Practice

  25. Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy Implicit Liabilities Implicit liabilities are spending promises made by governments that are effectively a debt despite the fact that they are not included in the usual debt statistics.

  26. Long-Run Implications of Fiscal Policy Implicit Liabilities