The American Revolutionary War (1775-1781) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The American Revolutionary War (1775-1781)

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The American Revolutionary War (1775-1781)

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  1. The American Revolutionary War(1775-1781)

  2. British Advantages Over the Americans • Brits had greater numbers of troops. • 48,000 British soldiers + 30,000 Hessians • Americans had no standing army. • Brits had an organized navy. • Brits were used to American soil. • The Brits had no European wars going on at this time. • About 1/3 of the people in America were loyal Tories

  3. Issues for the British • Logistics • Would population go for a long war? • No new taxes – however, that would come with war • Many said good riddance to the colonies

  4. Organization of American Military Effort • Washington chosen to lead for a couple of reasons. • Good commander • He’s from Virginia • Had a foundation to build on with the colonial militias. • Many were French-Indian War vets. • Asked men to enlist for 1 yr terms.

  5. War in 1776 • Boston abandoned • Benedict Arnold & Ethan Allen at Ft Ticonderoga • New York is captured by British • Plan was to split the colonies – control the Hudson River • Warm water port (didn’t freeze in winter) • By late 1776, Washington’s army went from 23,000 men to 7,000 • American victory at Trenton


  6. Delaware Crossing

  7. War in 1777 –the 3 Pronged Attack • 3 British armies • Howe – NYC – north to Albany • St. Leger – Montreal - SW to Lake Ontario then east to Albany • Burgoyne – Montreal – South to Albany • Cut off New England

  8. Results of 3 Pronged Attack • What happened • Howe attacks Philadelphia • St. Leger was defeated at Oriskany • Burgoyne defeated at Saratoga • Turning Point of the War • Why?

  9. Treaties with French – Spring 1778 • Treaty of Amity and Commerce • French recognize American Independence • Establish trade ties • Treaty of Alliance • Established a military alliance • Neither France nor America would negotiate a separate peace treaty with the Brits. • France declared war – June, 1778.

  10. Two Important Foreign Generals • Marquis de Lafayette • Baron von Steuben (pronounced Stoy-ban)

  11. Entering the Southern Phase - 1779 • Hoped to find loyalists in South • Shifted focus in 1779 • Brits take Charleston, SC in 1780 • The South was much more of a patriot v. loyalist (Tories) fight • British army chases Americans who use hit and run tactics • Battle of Cowpens • Tarleton v. Morgan

  12. Problems on Both Sides • Neither side could sustain a war much longer. • American issues 1780-81 • Can’t pay troops • Led to mutinies, decline in recruiting • Could not hold the army together much longer • B. British Issues 1780-81 • Too expensive to fight • Protestants and Catholics civil war brewing

  13. Yorktown – Oct 1781 • Cornwallis camps on peninsula • French fleet in West Indies (led by DeGrasse). • Washington & Rochambeau from NY • Lafayette from Maryland • French blockaded Yorktown. • Washington laid siege to the town - 7 days • Cornwallis surrendered

  14. Treaty of Paris • Treaty of Paris (1783) • Brits and Americans work out their own deal • Terms • The Brits… • recognize American Independence • evacuate American territory east of the Mississippi. • return confiscated slaves. • American had to… • Pay pre-war debts • Among other things