Hall, Cultural Studies: Two Paradigms 1. Cultural Studies based on idea, common/shared meanings Structuralism 2. Cultural Studies based on actual praxis (cultural practice) Culturalism Barthes, The Grain of the Voice The grain of the voice is not – or not merely - simply it’s timbre. Its signifiancecannot be better defined, indeed, than by the very friction of the music and something else…. Sterne, The Audible Past Sound-reproduction technologies are artifacts of particular practices and relations “all the way down”; they can be considered archeologically. The history of sound technology offers a route into a field of conjectures among material, economic, technological, ideational, practical, and environmental changes. Situated as we are…it is both easy and tempting to forget the enduring connection between any technology and a larger cultural context.