Asia(China/Korean/Japan) By Jessica, Tristan, Vanessa, & Shaina
Porcelains • Long imported by neighboring countries as luxury goods and treasures. • In China, porcelains emerged during the Tang dynasty (618-906) and mature forms developed in the Song (960-1279). • Porcelain objects are fired at an extremely high temperature (well-over 2000°F) in a kiln* until the clay fully fuses into a dense, hard, substance resembling stoner glass. • True porcelain is translucent and rings when struck. • Chinese ceramists decorate these with colored designs or pictures working with finely ground minerals suspended in water along with a binding agent (such as glue). • The painters apply some mineral colors to the clay surface before the main firing and then apply a clear glaze over them.
Porcelain • the word 'china' also refers to a type of pottery, Chinese porcelain to be more specific, of which its origins can be traced to the time of the Shang dynasty (1766-1122 BC) • it is regarded as one of the greatest cultural achievements during the history of China (ability to use clay) • In the Yuan Dynasty, Jingdezhen, the Capital of Porcelain, produced blue and white porcelain which later became the representative of porcelain. • Porcelain of the Ming Dynasty inherited and developed traditions of porcelain of the Song Dynasty. • Since the Han and Tang Dynasties, porcelain has been exported worldwide. • Promotes economic and cultural exchange between China and the outside world, and profoundly influences the traditional culture and lifestyle of people from all other countries.
Earthenware • Common ceramic material, which is used extensively for pottery tableware and decorative objects. • Used clays colored by minerals and mineral impurities, especially iron compounds ranging from yellow to brownish black. • Considered rare treasures • Chinese potters often decorated vessels by simply painting the surface
Lacquered Wood • The lacquer tree is indigenous to China • During the Shang Dynasty (ca. 1600–1046 BCE), the sophisticated techniques used in the lacquer process were first developed and it became a highly artistic craft • Lacquer prevents the wood from decaying
Advanced decorative techniques were refined to very high standards in Japan • Yangzhou lacquerware is recognized not only by its carvings but also by exquisite patterns inlaid with gems, gold, ivory, and mother of pearl. • The products are normally screens, cabinets, tables, chairs, vases, trays, cups, boxes and ashtrays • lacquer in China included coffins, music instruments, furniture, and various household items
Calligraphy • Many Asian paintings bear inscriptions, texts written on the same surface as the picture • They held calligraphy in very high esteem – higher, in fact, than painting • Calligraphy and painting have always been closely connected • Relates to their culture because inscriptions and calligraphy appear almost everywhere in Asia
Silks/Embroidery • Discovery of silk: China at 2646 BCE • Such a popular commodity that it became a form of currency in the 2nd century • Silk and embroidered pieces reached Syria, India, and the Roman Empire via the trade routes through Central Asia • After the 12th century, cotton entered China from India, however, silk remained the more commonly used textile for embroidery.
Silks/Embroidery (cont.) • Embroidery: used as a form of embellishment since very ancient times. • After the beginning of recorded history, embroidery was combined with paint as a textile embellishment. • This process was revived during the fall of the Manchu government- fully embroidered garments became cost prohibited. • Traditionally, most Chinese silk embroidery was used to decorate religious and official costumes. • As the art continued to progress, shoes and purses as well as robes and clothing also started to feature elaborate embroidery. • Additionally, specific embroidery was used for flags and banners that indicated rank or station for officials.
Architecture • Chinese architecture consists of many styles (some involving aspects of both Japanese and Korean styles)
Architecture (cont.) • As opposed to the Chinese, Korean architecture is generally more colorful, using colors aside from the traditional reds and golds • Also utilizes the usage of pillars and columns
Architecture (cont.) • Japanese architecture on the other hand is the least colorful of the three countries’ styles