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Biotic Factors in the Ocean and Adaptations of Marine Life. By Katie and Trevor. What does the word BIOTIC mean?. Biotic Factors in the Ocean:. Biotic factors are created by producers , consumers and decomposers .

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    1. Biotic Factors in the Ocean and Adaptations of Marine Life By Katie and Trevor.

    2. What does the word BIOTIC mean?

    3. Biotic Factors in the Ocean: Biotic factors are created by producers, consumers and decomposers. Producers, consumers and decomposers are often referred to as the biotic componentsin an ecosystem. One example of a biotic factor would be a fish eating his prey.

    4. Producers(autotrophs): Producers are so important in the food chain because they affectall the other organism (either directly or indirectly) because they are the primary source of energy in the food chain. Producers have the ability to make their own food, which means they don’t rely on other organisms for food. They can be classified as phototrophic or chemotrophic.

    5. Phototrophic Vs. Chemotrophic

    6. Consumers: Consumers are heterotrophic - they depend on others for food and energy. Sharks would be tertiary consumers because they are at the top of the food chain.

    7. Decomposers… Decomposers are really important in marine ecosystems because they break down the dead, decaying matter (detritus) and turn it into nutrients that can help the other organisms. Examples of decomposers in the ocean: certain types of bacteria, sea slugs, and sea worms.

    8. Adaptations of Marine Life: There are many species of organisms in the ocean, each and every one of them has many adaptations that help them survive in their environment.

    9. Deep Ocean Adaptations Light: There is barely any visible light, the only light is produced by bioluminescence, a chemical reaction in the animal’s body which causes a low light level. Most often there light are blue or green but some have red to lure in prey. some can use there lights in bioluminescence patterns to find mates. Pressure: Deep sea creatures have adapted to pressure by developing bodies with no excess cavities, such as swim bladders, that would collapse under intense pressure. Temperature: The temperature between the surface and the deep ocean is dramatic. Temperatures vary more in the waters above the benthic zone where thermo clines, or the separation of water layers of differing temperatures, are more common. In most parts of the deep sea, the water temperature stay the same. With the exception of hydrothermal vent spots where hot water is shot up into the cold waters, the deep sea temperature remains between 2-4 degrees.

    10. Breathing Adaptations Many ocean organisms have to deal with several problems but an interesting one is “how do they breathe under water”? Fish and other organisms take in oxygen through their gills and skin. Marine mammals need to come up to the surface for air, which is why whales have blowholes like nostrils on the top of there heads, so they can come up for air then dive back under and not have to breathe again for another hour or even longer. Exchanging up to 90% of their lung capacity with every breath., they also store a great amount of oxygen in they blood and muscles when diving, so the deep ocean pressure collapses there lungs but they can still breath because the oxygen in the muscles last longer.

    11. Water Pressure Adaption's There are all sorts of organisms that can live under high water pressure. The reason they can survive such pressure is because of and adaptation to let their lungs collapse under the high pressure, keeping a small amount of oxygen in their lungs, and storing the rest in their muscle tissues (which have a higher concentration of oxygen cells). The leatherback sea turtle can dive to over 3,000 feet. Its collapsible lungs and flexible shell help it withstand the high water pressure.

    12. Individual Adaptations: Crab Beluga Whale Clown Fish Seahorse

    13. The Clown Fish The clown fish has a lot of adaptations that help it survive in the ocean.

    14. The Beluga Whale The Beluga Whale is very unique: • Beluga whales are adapted to be manoeuvrable swimmers, rather than fast swimmers. • They have specific adaptations for saving oxygen while diving in deep water: • Their heart rate slows down in a dive. • Blood is directed to places that rely on oxygen the most (heart, etc) during a dive. • Their muscles have a high concentration of oxygen to keep them going. • They breathe through a blowhole (like other whales). • There is only one side of the brain that rests so the whale will always be alert.

    15. Crab An Adaptation of the The crab has a very hard shell and it has many jobs to do. It protects the him from predators, keeps his body moist, and prevents him from being crushed by the waves. The crab’s shell is a physical adaptation.

    16. The Seahorse: • Their “s-curve” shape means they’re good hunters and it makes them a lot more effective than their ancestors were. • Their shape gives them stealth. This is very important as they aren't the best swimmers. Without stealth they would be very poor hunters.

    17. Works Cited: “Adaptations”. Bioweb.uw.lax.edu. Last modified: April 23, 2007. Accessed: November 5, 2011. <http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2007/berends-bets/adaptation.htm>. “Autotroph”. Wikipedia.org. Last modified: October 27, 2011. Accessed: November 5, 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autotroph>. “Beluga Whales – Adaptations for an Aquatic Environment”. www.seaworld.org. Accessed: November 4, 2011. <http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/beluga/adaptions.htm>. “Biotic”. Dictionary.com. Accessed: November 2, 2011. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/biotic>. “Biotic Component”. Wikipedia.org. Updated: November 1, 2011. Accessed: November 3, 2011. <http://en.wilipedia.org/wiki/Biotic_factor>. “Biotic Factor”. Biology online. Updated: July 25, 2008. Accessed: October 27, 2011. <http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Biotic_factor>.

    18. “Biotic Factors”. The Tropical Rain Forest. Accessed: October 27, 2011. <http://info.forests.tripod.com/biotic_factors.htm>. “Chemotroph – Definition”. Dictionary.com. Accessed: November 5, 2011. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/chemotroph>. “Chemotroph”. Wikipedia.org. Last modified: November 2, 2011. Accessed: November 5, 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/chemotroph>. “Consumer (food chain)”. Wikipedia.org. Last modified: October 27, 2011. Accessed: November 5, 2011. < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/consumer_(food_chain)>. “Decomposer”. Wikipedia.org. Last modified: October 19, 2011. Accessed: November 5, 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decomposer>. “Ecosystems”. Nhptv.org. Accessed: November 4, 2011. <http://www.nhptv.org/NatureWorks/nwepecosystems.htm>. Kennedy, Jennifer. “Adaptation”. About.com. Accessed: October 27, 2011. <http://marinelife.about.com/od/glossary/g/adaptation>. Kennedy, Jennifer. “Characteristics of Marine Life”. About.com. Accessed: October 27, 2011. <http://marinelife.about.com/od/marinelife101/p/CharMarineLife.htm>.

    19. “Photosynthesis”. Wikipedia.org. Last modified: November 3, 2011. Accessed: November 5, 2011. <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Photosynthesis>. “Redox Reactions”. Shodor.org. Accessed: November 5, 2011. <http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/redox/ >. “Seahorse Shape Explained as Stealth-Attack Adaptation”. www.wired.com. Published: January 28, 2011. Accessed: November 5, 2011. <http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/01/seahorse-shape/>. “The Structures and Adaptations to Marine Living”. MarineBio.org. Updated: September 17, 2011. Accessed: November 4, 2011. <http://marinebio.org/Oceans/structuresadaptations.asp?>.