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  1. Lecture 3: Early 16th C Ann T. Orlando 23 January 2006 Early 16th C

  2. Introduction to Next Three Lectures (3,4,5) • All three will have Martin Luther as the main ‘player’ • Lecture 3: focus on start of Reformation and impact in Germany • Lecture 4: Martin Luther’s Life and political impact beyond Germany • Lecture 5: focus on theology and doctrinal issues • NB: these really are interlocking themes Early 16th C

  3. Outline Lecture 3 • Historical Review of Early 16th C • Popes of early 16th C and political situation • The Beginning of the Reformation • Political Conflicts precipitated by Luther in Germany Early 16th C

  4. Historical Review 14th – 15th C • Black death, Hundred Year’s War • Avignon Papacy • Great Schism: 2 Popes • Conciliar Movement: 3 Popes • Development of strong, competing nations • Fall of Constantinople, 1453 Early 16th C

  5. Recap: Situation Early 16th C • Byzantine Empire destroyed; • Powerful Ottoman Turks in control of Eastern and Southern Mediterranean • Spain newly unified after expulsion of Muslims • France and England in uneasy truce • France and HRE in occasional battles over eastern France • Popes in very weakened political situation after Avignon papacy; reliant on sale of indulgences and simony for funds Early 16th C

  6. Popes of Early 16th Century • Alexander VI (1492-1503), most notorious Borgia Pope • Julius II (1503-1513), leads armies in battle to solidify Papal States, decides to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica; • Old St Peter’s built by Constantine in very bad condition • What had been largest church in Christendom now a mosque • Donation of Constantine accepted as a forgery • Leo X (1513-1521), “Now that God has given us the Papacy, let us enjoy it.” • Popular joke is ROMA = Radix Omnia Malorum Avaritia (Avarice the Root of All Evil) • Note, however, that these same Popes were also patrons for some of the most important artists of Renaissance and early Baroque • These same Popes were champions of learning and encouraged establishment of major libraries, including Vatican library Early 16th C

  7. Very Strong ‘National’ Rulers Early 16th C • Francois I of France • Charles V HRE (Spain, Germany, Netherlands) • Henry VIII in England • Sulyman the Magnificent in Ottoman Empire Early 16th C

  8. Martin Luther (1483-1546) • Luther was influenced by humanism; studied Biblical languages and the early Church Fathers, especially Augustine • Driven by internal and external events • Internal struggle • As a young Augustinian monk, Luther struggles to appease God for his sins • Finally realizes that nothing he can do can appease God; salvation must be God’s free gift that one accepts by faith Early 16th C

  9. In 1517, Albert of Mainz wants to be Archbishop Albert buys his archbishopric from Rome, with money borrowed from Rome (Pope Leo X); Rome needs the money in part to help pay for rebuilding of St. Peters Rome authorizes the preaching of a special indulgence in Germany, with the money to go to Albrecht, so he can repay his loan back to Leo X Indulgence is preached by Johan Tetzel, “When the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs” The Proximate Cause of the German Reformation Early 16th C

  10. Martin Luther’s Response • Luther is deeply offended by this corruption • Responds to this situation with 95 Theses • A thesis was an academic hypothesis which was ot to debated among scholars • Luther’s theses go far beyond denouncing sin of simony and corruption; • fundamentally calls into question Rome’s primacy, • theology of indulgences; • denounces scholasticism • German princes, especially Fredrick the Wise of Saxony, support Luther against Rome and against Charles V Early 16th C

  11. Map Central Europe 1500www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/08/euwc/ht08euwc.htm Early 16th C

  12. Case Study: Indulgences • The Commission of Indulgences • Purpose is to reconstruct St. Peter’s • Indulgence remits all pain of purgatory for living and dead • Money given depends on social status; no prayer needed, just give money • 95 Theses • Pope cannot remit punishment due to sin; only God can • Certainly cannot effect dead who have already been judged by God • 28 “It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone.” • Much better to give money to poor and engage in works of mercy than to buy pardons • 50 “Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. “ • Gospel is true treasure of Church Early 16th C

  13. ‘German’ Political Situation Early 16th C • Germany (all of Central Europe) actually composed of separate dutchies, loosely confederated into the Holy Roman Empire • HRE goes back to Otto I in the 10th C • Diet an assembly of more important princes, or Electors, who administered much of ‘Germany’; also chose the HRE • By 15th C Emperor almost always chosen from Hapsburgs who ruled Austria • Roughly three classes: nobility, knights, peasants • But a growing new class of merchants, small business owners; Luther’s father Early 16th C

  14. German 16th C Social Unrest • Major nobility (electors) becoming increasingly powerful • But recognized that Charles V was a very strong Emperor • Concerned that Pope could appoint powerful bishops and funds leaving Germany through simony and indulgence selling • Knights losing place in society • Rulers using lawyers for counsel and standing armies or mercenaries for military • Knights become mercenaries • Peasants economically oppressed by nobility and urban merchant class • Printing press is increasing literacy among peasants Early 16th C

  15. Luther and Politics • Luther’s primary political supporter was Fredrick the Wise of Saxony • He establish University at Wittenburg • Protected Luther after Diet of Worms; taking him to Wartburg • Battled Charles V and succeeded in getting the Peace of Augsburg signed • But Frederick also allied with Pope Leo X against Charles V and the Turks • Luther interpreted Rom. 13 as requiring Christians to support their rulers, regardless of circumstances Early 16th C

  16. Luther and Peasants and Jews • Peasant unrest throughout 16th C • Misunderstand Luther’s call to freedom of Christian and priesthood of all believers as call to greater social autonomy • Publish 12 Articles of Grievances of Peasants 1525 • Peasant Revolt of 1525 led by one of Luther’s supporters, Thomas Muentzer • Luther repudiates Peasant Revolt, encourages nobility to crush revolt in Against the Murderous and Thieving Hordes of Peasants • Jews in 16th C • Recall popularly blamed for plague • Competitors to rising merchant class • Luther was deeply anti-Semitic, The Jews and Their Lies Early 16th C

  17. Appeal to German Nobility, 1520 • Three walls built around Roman Church • Popes decree that temporal powers have no jurisdiction over them • Only Pope can interpret Scripture • Only a Pope can summon a council • Luther’s response • No difference between laymen and priests • Scripture does not say that only Pope can interpret Scripture • When Pope acts contrary to Scripture it is the duty of Christians to oppose him Early 16th C

  18. Political Response Against Luther and German Princes • Pope Leo X did not want to cross Fredrick the Wise • Check on Charles V power • Wanted Germans to take up arms against Turks • Luther appeared before Diet of Worms, 1521 • Luther is condemned by Charles V • ‘Kidnapped’ by Fredrick the Wise and taken to Wartburg Castle to prevent capture by Charles V • Schmalkaldic League formed in 1531 by German nobles opposed to Charles V • Sporadic Battles between them and Charles V until 1555 Early 16th C

  19. Peace of Augsburg, 1555 • Cuius regio, eius religio, “whose reign, his religion” • Only valid for Lutheran and Catholic princes • “Final” answer to who is in charge: the prince • Note there is still no separation of Church and State Early 16th C

  20. Assignments • 1. Bokenkotter, Chapter 18, 19 • 2. Archbishop Albert Mainz. The Commission of Indulgences in The European Reformations Sourcebook. ed Carter Lindberg. Malden: Blackwell, 2000. 29-30. • 3. Martin Luther. 95 Theses, available at http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/luther/web/ninetyfive.html • 4. Martin Luther. Appeal to German Nobility andBabylonian Captivity of the Church.in The European Reformations Sourcebook. ed Carter Lindberg. Malden: Blackwell, 2000. 36-39. • 5. Peace of Augsburg available at http://www.uoregon.edu/~sshoemak/323/texts/augsburg.htm Early 16th C