The Ultimate Bailout Plan فقه الحجّFiqh of Hajj
وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ Introduction to Hajj
Definition of Hajj • Linguistic – to intend to travel to a place of great honor • Islamic - to intend to travel to the House of Allah and perform specific rites and rituals during specified times at specified places
Manasik • Manasik which is the plural of ‘mansak’ or ‘mansik’ which means ‘worship’ or time or place of worship. It can also mean sacrifice of animals or the place or time animals are sacrificed. • In Shariah, it refers to the rites and rituals of Hajj.
When was Hajj obligated? • 11 opinions have been stated out of which: • 2 are weak: before Hijrah and 10th year of Hijrah • 2 opinions are well-known and accepted: 6th year and 9th year of Hijrah • Ayni has stated opinions varying from the 5th year of Hijrah all the way to the 10th , without giving preference to any. • Qastalani states that the opinion of the majority is that it was mandated in the 6th year because that is when the verse; “و أتموا الحج والعمرة لله ...” was revealed. This is also the opinion of Hafidh Ibn Hajar in Fathul-Bari. • Shami has resolved that it was the 9th year of Hijrah, and this is also the opinion of Ibn Qayyim, Qadhi Ayadh, Qurtubi, etc.
History of the Hajj • In the 9th year after Hijrah the Prophet (pbuh) deputed Abu Bakr (ra) to lead the believers in Hajj • Ali (ra) was sent to make proclamations about purifying the Haram • This served as a preparation for the great and farewell pilgrimage. • In 10 A.H. the Prophet (pbuh) performed Hajj, in what is called Hajjatul-Wida’
Why did the Messenger of Allah delay the Hajj till the 10th year of Hijrah? • Makkah under non-Muslim control • Nasi – distortion of lunar calendar by the Arabs • Presence of Mushrikoon and their corrupt practices • Not obligated till after Hajj in 9th year
Hajj is Obligatory with the Following Conditions • Muslim • Free • Sound state of mind • Adult • Healthy • Possession of extra wealth that suffices for transportation, provisions, and maintenance of one’s family or other financial obligations till return • Women require a Mahram
Hajj mandatory immediately or with delay? • Imam Abu Hanifah, Ahmad, Malik, and Abu Yusuf: Immediately, otherwise one will be sinful. They use the Hadith: الحج فليتعجلمن أراد (Abu Dawud) • Imam Shafi and Imam Muhammad: With delay as long as it is not neglected totally, therefore one will not be sinful by delaying it. But if he dies before performing it, he will be sinful. Their evidence is the fact that the Messenger of Allah salla Allah alaihi wa sallam delayed it till the 10th year of Hijrah.
وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ Hajj – Step by Step
HOW TO PERFORM HAJJ AT-TAMATTU’ • Umrah will be performed first • In order to do so a person must enter into Ihraam
The Mawaqit • The mawaqit which it is not permissible for a person to pass except in the state of ihram are: • for the people of Madinah : Dhu’l-Hulayfah, • for the people of `Iraq : Dhatu-`Irq, • for the people of the Levant (al-Sham) : al-Juhfah, • for the people of Najd : Qarn al-Manazil, • for the people of Yemen : Yalamlam. • If one entered ihram before these mawaqit, it is valid. • The miqat of one whose dwelling-place is after the mawaqit, is al-Hill . • The miqat of one who is in Makkah is the Haram for hajj and al-Hill for `umrah.
ENTERING INTO IHRAAM • Clip the nails and remove the under-arm and pubic hair. (sunnah) • Take bath. If this is not possible then, perform wudhu (sunnah) • Put on the two sheets of cloth. (fardh)
ENTERING INTO IHRAAM(Cont’d) 4. Use Itar (perfume) without leaving any visible signs of its existence on the sheets of Ihraam. (sunnah) 5. Perform 2 rakaats of Ihraam, with the head and shoulders covered. Recite in the 1st rakaat Sura Al-Kafiroon’ and in 2nd rakaat Al-Ikhlas. (mustahab) 6. Males should remove their head cover and not cover the head until free from Ihraam. (fardh) 7. Make intention for Umrah only and not Hajj.
ENTERING INTO IHRAAM(Cont’d) 8. Recite the following Talbiyah three times, audibly for males and in a low voice for females. Labbayk Allahumma labbayk. Labbayk la shareeka laka labbayk. Innal hamda wan ni’mata laka wal mulk la shareeka lak. I am present. O Allah I am present. You have no partner, I am present. Indeed all praise and bounty is for You and the entire universe. You have no partner. 9. Remember that from now onwards you are in the state of Ihraam and all restrictions of Ihraam apply.
The Talbiyah for Hajj & Umrah لَبَّيْكَ الّلهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ لا شَرِيْكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْك إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ وَ النِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَالُمُلْكَ لا شَرِيْكَ لَكَ
Forbidden Deeds during Ihram - Men • rafath (physical or verbal intimacy with ones spouse), • fusuq (sins) and • jidal (argument). • He should not kill game, nor point it out, nor direct to it. • He should not wear a shirt, nor pants, nor a turban, nor a cap, nor a gown. • No shoes that cover the entire feet and no socks
Forbidden Deeds during Ihram – Men • Wearing sewn garments • He should not cover his head, nor his face. • He should not apply perfume. • He should not wash his hair or beard with shampoo • He should not shave his head, nor his body hair, nor cut [anything from] his beard, nor [cut] his nails. • He should not wear a garment died with wirs , saffron or safflower, unless it has been washed and does not exude fragrance.
Forbidden Deeds during Ihram – Women • Using perfume • Covering the face • Wearing gloves
Permissible Deeds during Ihram • performing ghusl • entering a bath-house • taking shade under a house, or a canopy • Wearing glasses or a watch • Tying a belt around his waist to carry money. • Women may wear sewn clothing, shoes, and should cover their head
ARRIVING AT JEDDAH 1. Proceed to Makkah. 2. Arrange to put belongings at a safe place, hotel, etc. 3. Take a rest if required and fix a time for Umrah. 4. If you take a shower then remember not to use scented soap. 5. Remember the location of your hotel.
TAWAF 1.Enter Masjid Al-Haram, preferably from Babus Salaam with wudhu making intention of I’tikaaf 2. Stop reciting Talbiyah and make intention for Tawaaf of Umrah whilst standing on the black line, facing Hajrul Aswad. • Recite: Bismillahi Wa Allahu akbar and raise the hands and let them fall, in the way Takbeer Tahrima is done in Salaah. This is done only at the beginning of the first round of a Tawaaf and not in every round. Thereafter, do Istilaam, by raising the hands with the palms facing the approximate height of Hajrul Aswad. Recite Bismillahi wa Allahu akbar and kiss your hands. (sunnah)
Tawaf 4. Proceed with the Tawaaf and do Istilaam in every round. Perform Raml (sunnah) in the first 3 rounds and Idhtiba’ (sunnah) in all seven rounds. 5. After Tawaaf, perform two rakaats Sunnah of Tawaaf preferably at Maqaam Ibraahim. (Due to overcrowding, do not push to pray there but pray elsewhere in Haram). 7. Before going for Sa’y make (the ninth) Istilaam of the Hajrul Aswad. (sunnah)
Every Tawaf followed by sa’y will be performed with Idhtiba’ and Ramal
Sa’y 1. Proceed to Safaa to begin sa’y 2. Stand on the crop of the mount from where Ka’bah is visible, make dua. (sunnah) 3. Do not do Istilaam, as is commonly done at these points.
Sa’y 4. Proceed to Marwah • Safaa to Marwah is one round and back to Marwah from Safaa is two rounds. Continue seven rounds in this manner. 5. Males should lightly jog between the green lights and not the women. (mustahab)
Halaq/Qasr 6. Males must shave or cut the hair within the boundaries of Haram. (fardh) • If cutting (qasr), at least one inch of all the hair must be cut. (fardh) • Females must trim approximately one inch from the end of their hair plaits. (fardh) You have now completed Umrah and you are out of Ihraam.
8th Dhul Hijjah (Yawm At-Tarwiyah) Before Fajr Salaah 1. Make ghusl (Sunnah), pray two rakaats (Sunnah) and wear the sheets of Ihraam (fardh). 2. Recite Talbiyah making intention of Hajj only (wajib)
8th Dhul Hijjah (Yawm At-Tarwiyah) 4. Leave for Mina (sunnah) after sunrise. (But nowadays due to the vast number of pilgrims, the guides start to locate everyone to their tents in Mina starting from late after Isha, buses carry on arriving in Mina throughout the entire night). 5. Fajr. (If you arrive early in Mina). 6. Zuhr, Asar, Maghrib, Esha.
9th of Dhul-Hijjah (Yawm Al-Arafah) In Mina • Fajr. • Leave for Arafat after sunrise. In Arafat 3. Dhuhr and Asr will be prayed together 4. Cannot leave Arafah before sunset. 5. Leave for Muzdalifah after sunset without praying Maghrib. In Muzdalifah 6. Pray Maghrib and Isha at Isha time. 7. Collect 70 pebbles at Muzdalifah and a few extra. 8. Stay overnight in Muzdalifah(Sunnah until Subh Sadiq).
10th Dhul-Hijjah In Muzdalifa • Pray Fajr and leave for Mina a little before sunrise. In Mina 1. Ramy (Wajib) of the Big Jamarah. Masnoon time is from sunrise till zawal. It is permissible after zawal until Maghrib and also after Maghrib until subh sadiq in necessity 2. Stop recital of Talbiyah after pelting the first pebble. 3. Sacrifice (Wajib). 4. Shave or trim the hair (wajib) 5. Now you are free from the restrictions of Ihraam and can dress into normal sewn clothes and the head can be covered but sexual relations between the husband and wife are not permissible. 7. Leave for Makkah