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Evolution Chapter 13. “ A change over time ”. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-FT3FU2XOgo http://www.hulu.com/watch/403434#details=expand. The Theory of Evolution. Evolution literally means to change over time.

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Evolution Chapter 13

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    1. EvolutionChapter 13 “A change over time”

    2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-FT3FU2XOgo • http://www.hulu.com/watch/403434#details=expand

    3. The Theory of Evolution • Evolution literally means to change over time. • A theory is a well supported, testable explanation that observes observations from the natural world

    4. Questions that evolution attempts to answer. • How do species adapt to changes in the environment? • How do new species develop?

    5. Charles Darwin • 1809-1882 • Studied to be a doctor and a minister • 1831 sailed around the world as a naturalist on the HMS Beagle

    6. HMS Beagle

    7. Darwin’s Voyage

    8. Galapagos Islands

    9. Galapagos Islands

    10. 15-2 Darwin’s Influences

    11. James Hutton • Geologist • Proposed that the earth was millions of years old based on geologic evidence

    12. Sir Charles Lyell • Geologist • Proposed that geologic changes occur slowly over long periods of time. • Darwin read his book, Principles of Geology, on the Beagle

    13. Jean Baptiste Lamarck French Naturalist Published his ideas on evolution in 1809 in Philosophie zoologique

    14. Lamarck’s Hypothesis Organisms Strive for Perfection – all individuals are trying to better themselves

    15. Lamarck’s Hypothesis Use and Disuse – If an individual uses a trait it will be more useful If an individual does not use a trait it will decrease in usefulness

    16. Lamarck’s Hypothesis Inheritance of Acquired characteristics

    17. Analyzing Lamarck’s Hypothesis • There is no evidence to suggest that plants and animals are trying to improve themselves

    18. Analyzing Lamarck’s Hypothesis • Use and disuse do not change all characteristics • Stretching will not make you taller • Reading will not make your eyesight better

    19. Analyzing Lamarck’s Hypothesis • Acquired characteristics are not inherited • A mouse that loses its tail will still produce offspring with tails

    20. Erasmus Darwin Charles Darwin’s Grandfather Physician and Scientist 'All vegetables and animals now living were originally derived from the smallest microscopic ones.'

    21. Thomas Malthus – • Economist • Human Population would be limited • Starvation • War (Competition) • Disease

    22. 15-3 Darwin Presents His Case

    23. Alfred Wallace • Developed his own theory of Natural Selection • Contacted Darwin • This caused Darwin to finally publish his theory with Wallace

    24. On Origins of Species • After publishing with Wallace, Darwin submitted all of his ideas in a book titled On Origin of Species, By Means of Natural Selection in 1858

    25. Artificial Selection • Darwin was influenced to believe change was possible because of the humans selecting for traits in plants and animals.

    26. Darwin’s Theory • Evolution “Change” is driven by natural selection

    27. Summary of Darwin’s Theory

    28. Variation • There are differences within a population • Mutation and Sexual Reproduction

    29. Competition for resources • Not all offspring will survive • Starvation • Overcrowding • Predation

    30. Fitness • Some of the variants will have an advantage over the others, they will survive and produce more offspring

    31. Reproduction and Inheritance • These advantages will be passed on to the next generations

    32. Descent with Modification • Species alive today are descended with modification from ancestral species

    33. Tree of Life • All species are connected on a single tree of life

    34. Modern Theory • Mendel’s discoveries in genetics explained a great deal in evolution

    35. Evidence for Evolution • Fossil Record • Anatomy • Development • Molecular Evidence

    36. Fossil Record • Since most of the “ancestor” species are extinct, fossils are the only evidence that can be examined. • Intermediate “missing link” fossils are very informative

    37. Archaeopterix A fossil of a bird like creature Has feathers, teeth and claws in its wings

    38. Whale Ancestors • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lx079oEgKKs

    39. Anatomy Structures similarities in body structure indicates organisms are related

    40. Homologous Structures Structures that have common function and design (ancestry)

    41. Vestigial Organs Structures that have reduced size and or function http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbc7ee9u1JE

    42. Developmental Evidence • Similarities in embryonic development are interpreted to mean closer relationships.