june 15 2011 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
June 15, 2011 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
June 15, 2011

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 70

June 15, 2011 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 78 Views
  • Uploaded on

June 15, 2011. Work engagement. Prof. dr. Arnold Bakker. PART 1. Positive Context. Positive Organizational Behavior. The study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'June 15, 2011' - micheline


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
june 15 2011
June 15, 2011

Work engagement

Prof. dr. Arnold Bakker

slide2

PART 1

Positive Context

positive organizational behavior
Positive Organizational Behavior

The study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths

and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance improvement in today’s workplace

Luthans (2003)

work engagement
Work Engagement

“A positive, affective-motivational state

of fulfillment that is characterized by

vigor, dedication, and absorption.”

Schaufeli & Bakker (2003, 2004, 2010)

utrecht work engagement scale
Utrecht Work Engagement Scale

Schaufeli & Bakker (2003)

  • Vigor
    • At my work, I feel bursting with energy
    • At my job, I feel strong and vigorous
  • Dedication
    • To me, my job is challenging
    • I am enthusiastic about my job
  • Absorption
    • When I am working, I forget everything else around me
    • I am completely immersed in my work
slide6

HIGH ACTIVATION

Excited

Agitated

Enthusiastic

Hostile

Energised

Irritated

Unpleasant high activation

ENGAGEMENT

Angry

Happy

Tense

Pleased

PLEASANT

UNPLEASANT

Dejected

Content

Unpleasant low activation

Pleasant low activation

Lethargic

Relaxed

Fatigued

Calm

Gloomy

Tranquil

Sad

LOW ACTIVATION

Russell & Carroll (1999)

slide7

HIGH ACTIVATION

Excited

Agitated

Enthusiastic

Hostile

Energised

Irritated

Unpleasant high activation

ENGAGEMENT

Angry

Happy

Tense

Pleased

PLEASANT

UNPLEASANT

BURNOUT

Dejected

Content

Unpleasant low activation

Pleasant low activation

Lethargic

Relaxed

Fatigued

Calm

Gloomy

Tranquil

Sad

LOW ACTIVATION

Bakker & Oerlemans (2011)

slide8

HIGH ACTIVATION

Excited

Agitated

Enthusiastic

Hostile

Energised

Irritated

Unpleasant high activation

WORKAHOLISM

ENGAGEMENT

Angry

Happy

Tense

Pleased

PLEASANT

UNPLEASANT

SATISFACTION

BURNOUT

Dejected

Content

Unpleasant low activation

Pleasant low activation

Lethargic

Relaxed

Fatigued

Calm

Gloomy

Tranquil

Sad

LOW ACTIVATION

Bakker & Oerlemans (2011)

engaged employees
Engaged Employees
  • Take personal initiative
  • Generate their own positive feedback
  • Are also engaged outside their work
  • Are tired in a different way
  • Also want to do other things than working

Schaufeli et al. (2001)

slide11

PART 2

Predictors

many demands and resources
Many Demands and Resources

Etc.

Etc.

Physical

Demands

Feedback

Mental Demands

Coaching

Emotional Demands

Social Support

Workload

Autonomy

jd r model of engagement
JD-R Model of Engagement

Bakker & Demerouti (2008)

Job

Demands

Job

Resources

+

Performance

Work

Engagement

Personal

Resources

+

+

+

technicians n 163 18 month follow up
Technicians, N=163 18-month follow-up

Time 1

Time 2

Job

Resources

Job

Resources

Personal

Resources

.21

Personal

Resources

Xanthopoulou et al. (2009 - JVB)

CAUSAL EFFECTS

.33

Work

Engagement

.22

Work

Engagement

technicians n 163 18 month follow up1
Technicians, N=163 18-month follow-up

Time 1

Time 2

Job

Resources

Job

Resources

.18

Personal

Resources

.30

Personal

Resources

Xanthopoulou et al. (2009 - JVB)

REVERSED CAUSAL EFFECTS

.22

Work

Engagement

Work

Engagement

dutch managers n 201
Dutch Managers, N=201

T1 Burnout

T2 Burnout

.74

Δ Job

Demands

.23

-.27

-.79

-.72

-.58

Δ Job

Resources

.45

T1

Engagement

T2

Engagement

.68

Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict

burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 893-917.

finnish dentists n 2555
Finnish Dentists, N=2555

Job

Demands

Burnout

Depressive

Symptoms

.23

.16

-.05

-

-

-

-.05

Job

Resources

Work

Engagement

Organizational

Commitment

.08

.23

Hakanen, Schaufeli & Ahola (2008)

belgian employees n 745
Belgian employees, N=745

Job

Demands

Exhaustion

.62

-.15

-.32

Need

Satisfaction

-.11

.86

.31

Job

Resources

Vigor

.34

Van den Broeck et al. (2008)

interactions in jd r model
Interactions in JD-R model

BURNOUT

WORK

ENGAGEMENT

HIGH

JOB DEMANDS

APATHY

BOREDOM

LOW

LOW

HIGH

JOB RESOURCES

resources work when needed finnish dentists n 1919
Resources work when needed Finnish Dentists, N=1919

Hakanen, J.J., Bakker, A.B., & Demerouti, E. (2005). How dentists cope with their job demands and

stay engaged: The moderating role of job resources. European Journal of Oral Sciences

resources work when needed finnish teachers n 805
Resources work when needed Finnish Teachers, N=805

Bakker, A.B., Hakanen, J.J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job resources boost work engagement,

particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99 , 274-284.

resources work when needed dutch employees n 12 000
Resources work when needed Dutch Employees, N=12,000

Bakker, A., Van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2010). Beyond the demand-control model:

Thriving on high job demands and resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 3-16.

personal resources
Personal Resources

“aspects of the self that refer to individuals’ sense of their ability to control and impact upon their environment successfully”

(Hobfoll et al., 2003)

Self-efficacy

Resilience

Optimism

Self-esteem

personal resources1
Personal Resources

Personal resources are important because they protect against negative stress, may promote health, and can be used to cope with stressful situations

slide31

PART 3

Outcomes

outcomes of engagement
Outcomes of Engagement
  • Better performance
  • Reduced Absence
  • Reduced Personnel Turnover
  • Higher productivity
  • Client satisfaction
  • Engaged Colleagues

Demerouti & Cropanzano (2010)

slide37

Daily engagement flight attendants

  • Trait Support
  • Trait Self-efficacy
  • Trait Work Engagement

Self-

Efficacy

Performance

Social

Support

Work

Engagement

Xanthopoulou et al. (2008, JOHP)

slide39

Greek fast-food restaurants

  • Branch
  • Trait Personal Resources
  • Trait Work Engagement

Personal

Resources

Financial

Turnover

Job

Resources

Work

Engagement

Xanthopoulou et al. (2009, JOOP)

slide40

Greek fast-food restaurants

  • Branch
  • Trait Personal Resources
  • Trait Work Engagement

Self-efficacy

Optimism

Self-esteem

Financial

Turnover

Autonomy

Coaching

Team Climate

Work

Engagement

Xanthopoulou et al. (2009, JOOP)

results
Results

Trait

Extraversion

B

Trait

Extraversion

A

+

+

Frequency

Daily

Communic

Daily

Engagement

A

Daily

Engagement

B

Daily

Performance

B

+

+

Bakker & Xanthopoulou (2009)

interaction
Interaction

Work Engagement B

Bakker & Xanthopoulou (2009)

slide45

PART 5

Interventions

job crafting
Job Crafting
  • Employees may actively change the design of their jobs by choosing tasks, negotiating different job content, and assigning meaning to their tasks or jobs

Parker & Ohly (2008)

job crafting1
Job Crafting
  • Job crafting is defined as the physical and cognitive changes individuals make in their task or relational boundaries
  • Wrzesniewski & Dutton (2001)
job crafting2
Job Crafting
  • Job crafting is defined as the changes individuals make in their job demands and job resources
  • Tims & Bakker (in press, South African Journal of Industrial Psychology
job crafting3
Job Crafting

Increasing

Structural

JRs

Increasing

Social JRs

Decreasing

JDs

Increasing

JDs

job crafting scale
Job Crafting Scale
  • Increase Job Resources
    • I ask my supervisor to coach me
    • I ask others for feedback on my job performance
  • Increase Job Demands
    • When an interesting project comes along, I offer myself proactively as project co-worker
job crafting4
Job Crafting
  • Decrease Job Demands
    • I organise my work in such a way to make sure that I do not have to concentrate for too long a period at once
job crafting scale reliabilities
Job Crafting Scale - Reliabilities

Tims, M., Bakker, A.B. & Derks, D. (2010). Measuring Job Crafting Behavior of Employees:

The Development and Validity of the Job Crafting Scale .

leaders and followers n 95
LeadersandFollowers, N=95

Bakker, Tims & Derks (2010)

Increasing JR

Increasing JR

Increasing JD

Proactive

Personality

Job crafting

Work

engagement

.68

.47

.37

.37

In-role

Performance

χ2 (31) = 36,39, TLI = .99, RMSEA = .04

daily variance in crafting
Daily variance in crafting
  • Increase Job ResourcesBetween: 57% Within: 43%
  • Increase Job DemandsBetween: 59% Within: 41%
  • Decrease Job DemandsBetween: 53% Within: 47%

Demerouti (2010)

slide56

Antecedents Job Crafting Outcomes

Increase

Resources

+

+

Active Jobs

JD x C

Increase

Demands

Work

Engagement

+

-

Reduce

Demands

Demerouti (2010)

interaction 1
Interaction (1)

Increase Resources

Demerouti (2010)

interaction 2
Interaction (2)

Decrease Demands

Demerouti (2010)

slide62

Organizational strategies

  • Work environment
      • Increase job resources
  • Leadership
      • Optimize social climate (crossover)
      • Stimulate transformational leadership
  • Training
      • Increase personal resources
  • Career development
      • Challenging work

Schaufeli & Salanova (2007)

individual strategies
Generate positive feedback

positive upward spiral

Goal setting

Use of implementation intentions

Job Crafting

Change job demands and resources

Use strengths in a new way

Engagement App

Individual strategies
slide64

JD-R Monitor

  • Participants:
  • Go to secured website
  • Fill in a personal code
  • Read Introduction
  • Fill in Questionnaire
  • Receive individual feedback
  • May print personalized report
work engagement model
Work Engagement Model

Bakker & Demerouti (2008)

Job

Demands

Job

Resources

+

Performance

Work

Engagement

Personal

Resources

+

+

+

Job crafting

slide70

More info:

www.arnoldbakker.com