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Multi-sector initial rapid assessment ( mira ) 2013 pakistan. Assessments in emergency. In designing an initial assessment, a humanitarian actor typically will ask three basic questions: What decisions need to be made? What information is needed to make these decisions?

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assessments in emergency
Assessments in emergency

In designing an initial assessment, a humanitarian actor typically will ask three basic questions:

  • What decisions need to be made?
  • What information is needed to make these decisions?
  • What methods are most suitable to obtain this information?
assessments in emergency1
Assessments in emergency
  • Emergency assistance is based on most immediate needs
  • Assessments aid in identifying
    • What service are needed;
    • What are the priorities;
    • In what quantity
  • Supporting the decision making
    • Of immediate and appropriate action
    • To starts implementation quickly
    • To minimize loss of life, infrastructures and resources in emergency situations
    • In formulation more effective response by collecting quality information
type of assessments
Type of Assessments
  • Initial or Rapid Assessment for identification of
    • Impact
    • Vulnerable groups
    • Level of response
    • Urgent need and methods
    • Areas for in-depth assessment
  • In-depth (detailed) assessment for identification of
    • Critical needs to be addresses for
      • Medium and longer-term relief
      • Rehabilitation assistance
disaster assessment process
Disaster Assessment Process

Planning and preparation

Decision making

pakistan s emergencies and assessments
Pakistan’s Emergencies and Assessments
  • Earthquake 2005
  • Sindh, Balochistan Cyclone 2007
  • KP/FATA Conflict 2008
  • Floods 2010
  • Floods 2011

Lessons learned from the above + global experiences

  • 2012 - Coordinated Approach

Lessons learned from 2012

  • 2013 – Revised MIRA Tool
  • Coordinated assessments range from inter and intra cluster/sector joint assessments to single agency assessments that are harmonized.
    • Harmonized Assessment:

Data collection processing and analysis is undertaken separately, however the data is sufficiently comparable (due to the use of common operational datasets, key indicators, and geographical and temporal synchronization) to be compiled into a single database, and to serve as the subject of a shared analysis.

    • Joint Assessment:

Data collection, processing and analysis form one single process among agencies within and between clusters/sectors. This leads to a single report. This is sometimes also referred to as a ‘common assessment’.

  • In contrast uncoordinated assessments are those in which data sets are not interoperable, and the results can not be used to inform the overall analysis.
coordinated approach
Coordinated approach
  • Assessment Working Group (AWG), Assessment Technical Team (ATT) and Assessment Analysis Team (AAT)
  • Survey of Surveys (SoS) – Assessment registry
  • Defined cluster-level indicators are developed to be monitored all through the emergency and early recovery phase
  • Standard Operational Procedures (SOPs) and guidelines for ensuring comparability and consistency in needs data collection
  • Monitoring component, including alignment with reporting mechanisms, to track changes of needs

Situation OverviewSecondary data

72 hrs

Initial appeal


Multi-sector Initial

Rapid Assessment

Field Needs AssessmentMulti-cluster

4-7 days

Initial appeal

Cluster DetailedAssessments

1-2 months

Appeal revision

Agency Assessments

> 1 months


MonitoringProgress and change of needs

mira joint tool
MIRA | Joint tool
  • Government driven process in any disaster
  • International humanitarian response is triggered/requested with Government’s request
  • MIRA Tool = Government + humanitarian community
  • ONE common methodology and assessment tool
multi sector initial rapid assessment objectives
Multi-sector Initial Rapid Assessment Objectives
  • Designed to identify after the disasters/complex emergencies
    • Scale, extent and nature of the disaster
    • Priority areas
    • Gapsin response and rescue
  • Supportthe government on initial decision-making
  • Feed-in to funding mechanisms- Appeal (Response Plan)
mira process timeframe
MIRA Process & Timeframe
  • Secondary Data – within 72 hours
    • Situation overview
      • Satellite imagery –UNOSAT, SUPARCO
      • District Profiles available – Govt. Data
      • District Baseline data and MIRA District Checklist – Govt.
  • Primary Field Assessment – within 1 week
      • Community level assessment – KI questionnaire and Direct Observation checklist
      • Identify needs
      • Priority areas (affected )
      • Vulnerable population
  • MIRA report – within 2 weeks
    • Inter-sectoral analysis
    • Result dissemination to the decision-makers (government and non-government actors)
    • Funding mechanisms -FLASH appeal (i. e. Rapid Response Plan)
joint assessment roster jar1
Joint Assessment Roster (JAR)
  • Volunteer-based organizations
  • Serve the humanitarian community in primary data collection
  • Support any assessment carried out within and following the SOPs of the Assessment and Monitoring Framework such as MIRA
  • Maintain competent, reliable and trained assessments enumerators / data collection experts
  • Open for International NGOs, local NGOs and CBOs
jar skills required
JAR | Skills required
  • Understanding of local situation and community dynamics
  • Ability to gather information in an objective and sensitive way
  • Effectively convey information in local language/English
  • Understand and interpret reactions in a culturally and gender sensitive way
  • Expertise to enter, transcribe, record, maintain data
  • Basic understanding of technology
jar duty description
JAR | Duty description
  • Select appropriate Key Informants for interviews
  • Conducting interviews using the assessment tools
  • Handle and fill in questionnaire on paper or through digital device (PDA/Smart Phone)
  • Undertake structured/semi-structured observation
  • Recognize and give an account of problems in obtaining data as to support evaluation
  • Report to the team supervisor and discuss developments daily.
mira field assessment structure 2013
MIRA Field Assessment Structure 2013

Data Manager

National Level

Provincial Level

District Level

cross cutting themes
Cross Cutting Themes
  • Gender
  • Age distribution
  • Disability
  • Protection
  • Culture & Mass Communication
cross cutting issues importance
Cross Cutting Issues-Importance
  • They are issues that impact in more than one field\sector.
  • They are everyone’s business but can end up being no one’s business
  • They are the specific issues that come with Gender, Age, Disability, vulnerability for Protection needs- Culture and Mass Communication also added for MIRA
  • They get hidden when only Households, Affected People, Individuals, Beneficiaries, Displaced are mentioned
  • Cross-cutting issues require action in multiple fields and should beintegrated into all areas to guide
    • Humanitarian community’s emergency response
    • Government priorities setting
    • Donors funding priorities
    • Policy and political dialogue

MIRA has specific questions that focus on these cross cutting issues

gender specific needs of men women boys and girls
Gender Specific Needs of Men Women Boys and Girls
  • Vulnerability of Female Headed Households
  • Young boys and girls can be trafficked/ abducted
  • Young Girls and Women have distinct hygiene and sanitary needs
  • Men have to leave their families alone and unprotected for breadwinning
  • Women care for food and care in a HH – what is their burden if they are also agriculture laborer and gathering water ?
  • Lactating mother’s need purdah privacy to continue breastfeeding
  • Coping of women and girls is that they eat last and eat less while giving priority to the men in the HH
  • Women may not have CNIC and can be excluded in documentation of aid recipients

Age Distribution

  • Child-headed households/Orphan Headed Households
  • Elderly persons headed HH,
  • Age related disability especially if they are without support
  • Underage but needing documentation to become recipients of Government /Relief assistance
  • Children ( boys and girls) have a difference in ability to access education, nutrition, information given their cultural context
    • Girls stay home to care for siblings
    • Young girl marriages in disaster settings
    • Boys drop out of school for breadwinning
    • Women of child bearing age have specific needs
    • Women who are alone ( divorced/widowed/ unaccompanied) may need to become breadwinners


Age related, Mental and Physical

  • Age related disability for men and women can mean
    • Not being counted, consulted and/or included
  • HHs with mentally or physically disabled persons have to devote more time, human and financial resource for their protection for basic survival
  • People with disability may have specific health needs
  • Elderly cannot access food collection as aid recipients
  • Elderly dietary needs are different- cannot chew normal food
  • Disabled needs require provision of aids like wheel chair, crutches hearing aids etc
  • The overall objective of protection is to make sure that the displaced communities are enjoying a dignified living.
  • For a dignified living there certain minimum things which needs to be address i.e. shelter, food, education, health
  • In time of a disaster, there is a need to scale up efforts to address protection including child protection, GBV prevention and response, mental health, psycho-social support.
  • Psycho-social support is crucial for children and women after a disaster hits.
  • Establishment of child friendly spaces that are safe and child-friendly and are learner centred.
  • Medical and Legal support to SGBV survivors
  • Monitoring to detect violations and abuses
culture mass communication
Culture & Mass Communication
  • Culture
  • Culture can be an enabler or a barrier- women’s mobility and access to Aid and Information,
  • Culture of inclusion or exclusion- are women consulted
  • Conservative- Enumerators may be facilitated or resisted
  • Mass Communication
  • How many households have an active cell phone.
  • Is SMS as a means of passing on information ?
  • Word of mouth as a way most people receive information.
  • The MIRA questionnaire seeks to assess also the main sources of primary information for the community and the most urgent information needs of the community.
  • Services have been developed to reinforce the importance of communication during disasters (on essential services, processes, hazards etc.)

Code of Conduct Agreement

Main elements

  • Respect for dignity of the respondents
  • Informed consent of the respondent
  • Responsibilitieswith respect to use of data and confidentiality
  • Commitment to agreed Standards, including measures against Sexual Abuse /Exploitation
    • SG Bulletin 2003 and implementation guidelines;
    • IASCsix core principles relating to sexual exploitation and abuse (2002);
    • Specific Codes of Conduct of UN agencies and NGOs;
    • Standard of respect and protection in CRC, Cedaw
  • Commitment to Measures in case of breach
informed consent
Informed Consent
  • CONSENT  approval by the participant to be part of the exercise
  • INFORMED  the informant should receive the following information in simple, jargon-free language:
  • Introduction/ identity of the information collector;
  • Brief explanation of the assessment exercise;
  • Purpose of the information collection, method, and intended use of the information (managing expectations);
  • The principle of confidentiality

i.e. persons interviewed can request any information that may reveal their identity to be kept confidential;

  • A reminder that the informant can cease participating at any time;
  • The informed consent implies a dialogue not only a form for participants to read and sign

Code of Conduct Agreement

Why it matters for the MIRA?

  • For the interviewers
  • Provide basic standards of interviewing(e.g. respect, obtaining INFORMED consent)
  • Safeguard best interest of the respondent (confidentiality, respect for dignity)
  • Confirm commitment to agreed standards
  • Uphold humanitarian and “Do no Harm” principles

Code of Conduct Agreement

Why it matters for the MIRA?

  • For the respondents/key informants
  • Better engagement based on TRUST
  • Reliability and credibility in response through confidentiality
  • Protection and safeguards against any pressure or abuse

In sum…

The Code of Conduct sets key elements for