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MK. METIL-PDKL-PPSUB. MIXED METHOD RESEARCH MMR. I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO. Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293…… 23/9/2012. PERBANDINGAN.

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mixed method research mmr

MK. METIL-PDKL-PPSUB

MIXED METHOD RESEARCHMMR

I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO

slide2

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293…… 23/9/2012

perbandingan
PERBANDINGAN

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

paradigma ke tiga
PARADIGMA KE TIGA

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

pragmatisme
PRAGMATISME

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

risiko dalam menggunakan mm
RISIKO DALAM MENGGUNAKAN MM

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

tipologi riset mm
TIPOLOGI RISET MM

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

slide8
..

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

paradigma
PARADIGMA

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

tipologi riset mm1
TIPOLOGI RISET MM

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

tujuannya
TUJUANNYA

Tujuanintegrasi

Tujuan desain MM

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

perkembangan selama 20 tahun terakhir
Perkembanganselama 20 tahunterakhir
  • Peningkatanminatdanadvokasitentang MMR
  • Berkembangnyapemahamantentangapaitu MMR
  • Berkembangnyadisaindanteknik-teknikinovatif
  • “The emergence of mixed methods as a third methodological movement in the social and behavioral sciences began during the 1980’s.” (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003: 697)

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

perkembangan mma
Perkembangan MMA

“Kombinasimetodekualitatifdankuantitatiftelahsemakinberkembangdalamrisetkesehatanmasyarakat.” (1999)

Mentioned several

approaches for combining

qualitative and

quantitative research

Advanced considerations for deciding

what model to use (literature

available, prior studies,

realistic design, expertise)

Suggested to describe each

method thoroughly

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

slide14

BUKU-BUKU TENTANG MMR

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

slide15

A New Journal

Journals

Devoted to Mixed Methods:

Fieldwork Quality and Quantity Mixed Method Approaches

Editors: John W. Creswell

and Abbas Tashakkori

Managing Editor: Vicki L.

Plano Clark

Email: vpc@unlserve.unl.edu

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

international conferences
International Conferences
  • Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, England, July 21-24, 2008
  • Proposed mixed methods conference, Sydney, Australia, 2009
  • Discipline conferences with mixed methods papers

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

kritik pakar creswell 2007
KritikPakar(Creswell, 2007)
  • Is there a post-positivist leaning to mixed methods?
    • Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, 42-61.
    • Giddings, L. S. (2006). Mixed-methods research: Positivism dressed in drag? Journal of Research in Nursing, 11(3), 195-2003.
    • Holmes, C. A. (2007). Mixed(up) methods, methodology and interpretive frameworks. Contributed paper for the Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, University, July 10-12, 2006.
  • What are the limits for mixed methods research?
    • Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36, 43-53.
    • Leahey, E. (2007). Convergence and confidentiality? Limits to the implementation of mixed methodology. Social Science Research, 36, 149-158.
  • Is there a dominant discourse in mixed methods research?
    • Freshwater, D. (2007). Reading mixed methods research: Contexts for criticism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 134-146.

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

mmr tidak berbeda dengan metode lainnya
MMR TIDAK BERBEDA DENGAN METODE LAINNYA

IdentifikasiMasalahRiset

Kajianliteratur

Identifying a purpose and stating questions

Views of knowledge

Assumptions

Collecting data

Analyzing and interpreting data

Reporting and evaluating the study

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

mixed methods di dalam designs
Mixed Methods didalam Designs

Experimental

research

Ethnography

Case Study Research

Narrative research

Qual ----- Quan

Qual----- Quan

Qual-----Quan

Qual---- Quan

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

istilah istilah yang populer
Istilah-istilah yang Populer
  • Multi-method
  • Triangulation
  • Integrated
  • Combined
  • Quantitative and qualitative methods
  • Multi-methodology
  • Mixed methodology
  • Mixed-method
  • Mixed research
  • Mixed methods

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

bagaimana mencampur nya
BAGAIMANA MENCAMPUR-NYA

Data Konvergen:

Qual

Quan

Results

Connect data:

Qual

Quan

Results

Embed the data:

Quan data

Qual data

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

mengapa mencampur
MENGAPA MENCAMPUR ?
  • Validitas – untuk “menguatkan” data quandan qual.
  • Offset – offset weaknesses of quan and qual and draw on strengths
  • Completeness – more comprehensive account that qual or quan alone
  • Proses – quanmenyediakan outcomes; qualmenjelaskanproses
  • Eksplanasi – qualdapatmenjelaskanhasil-hasilquanatausebaliknya
  • Hasil yang tidakdiharapkan – hasil-hasil yang mengherankandarisatusudutpandang, sudutpandang yang lain menjelaskan
  • Pengembangan Instrument– qualmenggunakaninstrumenyangdirancang
  • Kredibilitas – keduapendekatanmemperbaikiintegritastemuan
  • Konteks – qualmenyediakkonteks; quanmenyediakan “general”.
  • Utilitas – lebihbermanfaatbagipraktisi.

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

single paradigm ke 3
“Single” Paradigm Ke -3
  • Pragmatisme (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003)
    • Fokuspadapertanyaanpenelitian
    • Apa “kerja,” konsekwensi
    • Metode-metode Multiple.
  • Transformatif (Mertens, 2003)
    • Transform lives of under represented, marginalized groups
    • Incorporate this focus into all phases of research

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

perkembangan designs dan teknik teknik inovatif
Perkembangan Designs danTeknik-teknikInovatif

PerkembanganPenting

  • Notation
  • Typologies
  • Diagrams of procedures
  • Complex evaluation models
  • Reconceptualizing designs
  • Emergence of innovations in procedures
    • Unusual blends
    • Methodological issues
    • Data analysis techniques
    • Presentation techniques

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

preliminary design considerations morse 1991
Preliminary Design Considerations (Morse, 1991)

quan

qual

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

slide26

Parsimonious Designs (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007)

QUANPre-test Data & Results

QUANPost-test Data & Results

Interpre-tasi

qualProcess

Intervention

QUANData & Results

QUALData & Results

Interpretasi

Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs

DisainTriangulasi

Disain Embedded

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

slide27

Sequential Designs - Mixed Methods Designs

qualData & Results

QUANData & Results

Interpretation

Following up

quanData & Results

QUALData & Results

Interpretation

Building to

QUANIntervention

Trial

Before-interventionqual

After-intervention qual

Interpretation

DesainEksplanatori

DisainEksploratori

Disain Embedded Sekuensial

Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

pemikiran pentingnya mm
Pemikiranpentingnya ... MM..
  • Kombinasimetode-metode yang dapatdipilih
  • The epistemological and ontological implications of what is chosen
  • The practicalities of carrying out the research
  • How the data are going to be brought together (lack of theory?)
  • Ketegangandiantarapendekatandanmetode-metode
apakah kita memahami
Apakahkitamemahami?
  • Multiple Method Research Designs (MMRD)
      • Multi-method designs -1+ method within paradigms
      • Mixed methods designs -1+ method mixed paradigms
      • Combining methods – 1+ method, one subsumed to other?
      • Integrating methods – 1+ method of equal weight?
      • Triangulasi – outcome dari MMRD?*
      • Transformasi Data
          • Mengkuantitatifkan data
          • Mengkualitatifkan data
mengapa kita lakukan
Mengapakitalakukan?
  • Emic and etic understandings?
  • Multiple research-questions?
  • Multiple facets or contexts
  • Multiple of singular-reality?
  • Mixed phenomena?
bagaimana kita melakukannya
Bagaimanakitamelakukannya?
  • Sequential atau parallel?
  • Linked atau independent?
  • Respondent enrolment
  • Development of research instruments
  • Time required
  • Costs – value for money?
  • Necessary expertise?
  • Organisasi Tim danKomunikasi.
penanganan data
Penanganan Data
  • Where’s your theory? How does that help?
  • Assumptions and presumptions – negotiating a path through/round them
  • Integration; triangulation; combination?
  • When are you going to integrate? Have you missed the moment?
  • Will your audience understand?
possible tensions
Possible tensions?
  • Metodologis
      • Differing findings
      • Unit analisis
  • Politis
      • Preferensi / persyaratanaudien
  • Praktikal
      • Waktu
      • Biaya
      • Umur data.
memperkuat pemahaman tentang
Memperkuatpemahamantentang:
  • Multidata-monoanalysis—this is the analysis of both data types (qualitative AND quantitative) using only one analysis type.
  • This results in:
  • Only quantitative analysis of your qualitative data , atau
  • Only qualitative analysis of your quantitative data.
  • We recommend that you avoid this approach because it is not wise to only analyze your qualitative data quantitatively or only analyze your quantitative data qualitatively.
  • Multi-faceted nature of all phenomena
  • Kontextualitas
  • Dimensi/hubungan Micro-meso-macro
  • Agensidanstruktur.

Diunduhdari: www.sagepub.com/.../notes/Ch19_Lecture.do... …… 26/10/2012

topik kerentanan vulnerability
Topik “Kerentanan” = VULNERABILITY
  • Essentialist approaches
  • Constructionist approaches
  • Fixed state/status
  • Contextual and fluid
  • An inherent weakness or something managed and negotiated?
  • Children and vulnerability
pendekatan metoda tunggal
PendekatanMetoda Tunggal?
  • Pendekatan yang manadanmengapa yang itu?
  • Tidakcukupuntukbeberapatujuantertentu
    • Mis. Pengembangankebijakan
  • Cannot elaborate micro-meso-macro interfaces and relationships
  • Strukturdanagensi
  • Some presumptions are problematic
mm multiple mixed methods
MM: Multiple / Mixed Methods
  • Fenomena Multi-dimensional
    • Access via different methods derived from an interpretivist stance
    • Dapatmengkajikontingensidanaspek-aspekdinamik
    • Draw on emic and etic conceptualisations to plan a strong design for mixed methods
    • Dapatmengkajihuunganstrukturaldanagensi/structure interfaces
etika data sekunder dan pertanyaan riset
Etika Data SekunderdanPertanyaanRiset
    • Data sensus
    • Data nasional
    • National statistical returns (eg Crime statistics for HO)
    • Hasil-hasilpenelitian yang dipublikasikan
    • Surveilokal (data primer)
    • Local statistics (secondary/primary data)
    • Data yang terbatastentanganak-anak.
  • PertanyaanPenelitian
    • Spesifik (hypotheses)
    • Determined at start by outside ‘experts’/prior research
    • Dibatasiolehapa yang tersedia , mis. area; unit analisis.
perkembangan lanjut
PERKEMBANGAN LANJUT
  • Using a mixed methods approach
    • Interface between micro and macro dimensions of physical safety, distributions of risk, violence
    • Would need primary data to capture distributions of management strategies
proses integrasi
ProsesIntegrasi:
  • Mengkombinasikan metode/data/analysis sedemikian rupa sehingga:
    • Mereka membentuk satu kesatuan
    • Menjaga sifat0sifat paradigmatiknya masing-masing (tidak mencampur-adukkan satu-sama lain)
    • Menghasilkan kontribusi yang sama nilainya
alternatif integrasi
AlternatifIntegrasi
  • Monodata-multianalysis—this is the analysis of one type of data using both qualitative and quantitative anslysis.
  • The logic of this approach is to:
  • Analyze your data with the standard approach (e.g., qualitative analysis for your qualitative data or quantitative analysis for your quantitative data).
  • Either qualitative or quantitize one set of data for additional analysis.
  • Qualitize—transforming quantitative data into qualitative data (e.g., provide names or labels to quantitative characteristics).
  • Quantitize—transforming qualitative data into quantitative data (e.g., do numerical counts of qualitative categories and themes).
  • Integrasisejakawalriset
  • Selamapengumpulan data
  • MelaluiAnalisis Data
  • MelaluiInterpretasi
  • SebagaihasilPresentasi

Diunduhdari: www.sagepub.com/.../notes/Ch19_Lecture.do... …… 26/10/2012

mmr mixed methods research
MMR: MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

MMR:

Riset yang menggunakanprosedur –prosedurpelaksanaan yang lazimdigunakandalamrisetkuantitatifdanrisetkualitatif.

Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research
. MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.

Tujuan

The purpose of these studies is usually to inform sponsors about a program they are funding.

The sponsors may want a descriptive study  of the program in which the operations and processes are explained and clarified.

They may also be interested in an effectiveness study  in which the operations are assessed in relation to organizational goals and targets.

Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

m m r
. M.M.R.

METODE-METODE

Masalah-penelitianakanmenentukanpilihandesain, tetapibeberapametodeberikutinidapatdigunakan:

Survei

Kunjunganlokasi.

Wawancara

Observasi

Questionnaires

Data Quantitatif.

Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research1
. MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.

TigaTipeDesain

Tigakaraktersitik yang membedakantipe-tipe MMR:

Priooritasdiberikanpadapengumpulan data kuantitatifataukualitatif.

Sekuenspengumpulan data kuantitatifataukualitatif

Teknik-teknikanalisis data yang dipakaiadalahkombinasianalisis data atauanalisis data sendiri-sendiri.

Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research2
. MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.

TigatipeDesain yang lazim:

Model QUAL-Quan

The exploratory mixed methods design

Qualitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted

2. Model QUAN-Qual

The explanatory mixed methods design

Quantitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted

3. Model QUAN-QUAL

The triangulation mixed methods design

Quantitative and qualitative data are collectedconcurrently and both are weighted equally

Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

riset multi metode
RISET MULTI-METODE
  • 10 KarakteristikDesain MM
  • The title of the research includes terms that suggest more than one method is being used
  • Mixed methods
  • Integrated
  •  Triangular
  • 2. Quantitative – qualitative
  • Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used in the study

Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research3
. MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.

Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs

3. The researcher describes the kinds of mixed methods being used

4. The data collection section indicates narrative, numerical, or both types of data are being collected

5. The purpose statement or the research questions indicate the types of methods being used

6. Questions are stated and described for both quantitative and qualitative approaches

7. The researcher indicates these quencing of collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data (i.e., QUAN-Qual, QUAL-Quan, or QUAN-QUAL)

8. The researcher describes both quantitative and qualitative data analysis strategies

9. The writing is balanced in terms of quantitative and qualitative approaches

Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research4
. MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.

Evaluating a Mixed Methods Design

Does the study use at least one quantitative and one qualitative research strategy?

What were the research questions addressed?

Who are the sponsors of the study and what are their expectations?

Does the study include a rationale for using a mixed methods design?

Does the study include a classification of the type of mixed methods design?

Does the study describe the priority given to quantitative and qualitative data collection and the sequence of their use?

Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research5
. MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.

EvaluasiDisain Mixed-Method

Was the study feasible given the amount of data to be collected and concomitant issues of resources, time, and expertise?

Who were the participants in the study? What did the samples consist of?

Does the study clearly identify qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques?

Apatujuandanpentingnyarisetini?

Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

mixed method research quant qual in a single study
.Mixed Method Research – Quant & Qual in a Single Study.

A mixed method approach allows researchers to simultaneously benefit from both quantitative and qualitative research methods in the context of one study addressing a single set of business objectives.

Flow Monitor designs market research studies that take full advantage of the inherent benefits of both quantitative (e.g., surveys) and qualitative (e.g., focus groups, ethnographic techniques, etc.) research.

The business objectives will greatly determine the appropriate sequence of methods. The diagrams below illustrate this.

Diunduh dari: http://www.flowmonitorinc.com/how-we-do-it.html …… 21/9/2012

slide53

Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293…… 21/9/2012

apakah mmr mixed methods research
Apakah MMR (Mixed Methods Research)?
  • Mixed methods research is not new but only recently been systematically described; ‘new era’ of mixed methods research (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 1998)
  • Different definitions of mixed methods research used by different researchers
  • Not simply the ad hoc combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, it is the planned mixing of methods at a pre- determined stage of the research (Halcomb et al., 2009)
  • “mixed methods [is] research which collects both qualitative and quantitative data in one study and integrates these data at some stage of the research process” (Halcomb et al., 2009)
  • Distinction between mixed methods (quant and qual) and multi method research (uses more than one method from same tradition) (Bazeley, 2007)

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

mengapa sains kesehatan berkembang ke arah mmr
Mengapasainskesehatanberkembangkearah MMR?
  • Increased reflexivity about researcher-researched relationships
  • Increased political awareness about what and who research is for
  • Growing formalisation of research governance and ethics procedures
  • The availability and ease of new technologies to analyse mixed methods research (e.g. Nvivo, MaxQDA, Atlas.ti)
  • International Research Collaboration

(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

rational penggunaan mmr
RATIONAL PENGGUNAAN MMR
  • Triangulation - one of the first rationales for using mixed methods research (Denzin, 1970). Used to test the consistency of findings through different approaches.
  • Complementarity - clarifies and illustrates results from one method with the use of another method.
  • Development - the results of analysis using one method shapes subsequent methods or steps in the research process.
  • Initiation-stimulates new research questions or challenges results obtained through one method.
  • Expansion- provides richness and detail buy building on the findings of either qualitative or quantitative methods

(Greene et al., 1989)

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

tipologi mmr
TIPOLOGI MMR

Four central questions that inform the design of a mixed methods study:

  • In what sequence will the qualitative and quantitative data collection be implemented?
  • What relative priority will be given to the qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis?
  • At what stage of the project will the qualitative and quantitative data be integrated?
  • Will an overall theoretical perspective be used to guide the study?

(Creswell, 2003)

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

tipologi mmr empat basic designs
Tipologi MMR: Empat Basic Designs
  • Principal Quantitative, Qualitative Preliminary (qual -> QUANT)
  • Principal Qualitative, Quantitative Preliminary (quant -> QUAL)
  • Complementary Quantitative, Qualitative Follow-Up (QUANT -> qual)
  • Complementary Qualitative, Quantitative Follow-Up (QUAL -> quant)

(Morse, 1991; Morgan, 1998)

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

pengumpulan data dalam mmr
Pengumpulan Data dalam MMR

Interviews/ Focus Groups/ Questionnaires/ Surveys/ Validated Tests and Scales/ Observation

Pertimbangannya:

  • Keseimbanganantarakelebihandankelemahanmasiong-masingmetode
  • Waktupengumpulan data

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

analisis dalam mmr separate analyses
Analisisdalam MMR: Separate Analyses

Qualitative and quantitative data sets analysed separately and conclusions drawn that incorporate both data sets.

Can be used for the following purposes:

  • Triangulation
  • Expansion or Complementarity
  • Development

Separate analyses may give rise to contradictory or discrepant results which need to be explained

(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

analisis dalam mmr combining data types for synthesis
Analisisdalam MMR: Combining Data Types for Synthesis

Combining of data types for analysis requires transformation of data in some form in order to ‘marry’ diverse sources.

Can be done through:

  • Meta matrices, databases, spread sheets e.g. systematic reviews
  • Qualitising numerical data e.g. using scores to provide a descriptive classification
  • Counting
  • Quantitising qualitative data e.g. 0/1 transformation for absence/presence of code, numerical weighting of codes (MaxQDA)

(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

analysis of mixed methods research combining data types for synthesis
Analysis of Mixed Methods Research: Combining Data Types for Synthesis
  • Combined analysis can be used to:
  • Merge and compare (e.g. themes can be quantified, independent t tests and bivariate linear regression analyses in SPSS)
  • Explore, predict and explain (e.g. case by case variable matrix, cluster analysis)
  • Blend to created new variable to use in further studies

(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

isu isu tentang mmr
Isu-isutentang MMR
  • ‘paradigm wars’, reconciling philosophical assumptions of each methodological perspective.
  • Selecting and managing research team with diverse specialities.
  • Practicalities of data collection and analysis, may make concurrent analysis difficult
  • Statistical analysis often relies on large sample sizes which are not common in qualitative research
  • Transforming qualitative data into numerical form may lose some of the richness and nuances in the text
  • A lack of templates for the writing up and publishing mixed methods research, sometimes qualitative and quantitative results published separately
  • Not all journals publish mixed methods research which may limit publication opportunities

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

manfaat mmr mixed methods research
Manfaat MMR (Mixed Methods Research)
  • Gives researchers an opportunity to creatively rethink research design and the various different ways they can be linked to research questions
  • Potential to generate new insights and levels of analysis
  • Challenges taken for granted assumptions across a wide range of research methods topics
  • Brings together researchers from different backgrounds and different specialisms and allows them to think together on a given research problem

(Bergman, 2008)

Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth...…… 21/9/2012

tiga kunci penelitian
.TIGA KUNCI PENELITIAN.

Diunduhdari: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/fig/94_10_1108_S1479-3679_2011_0000015014.png…… 26/10/2012

mixed method research mmr1

MK. METIL-PDKL-PPSUB

MIXED METHOD RESEARCHMMR

I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO

sejarah singkat mmr
SEJARAH SINGKAT - MMR
  • 1959: Concept of mixing different methods by Campbell & Fiske. (Psychologists)
  • 1973: Combined the Qualitative & Quantitative data by S.D. Sieber.
  • 1979: Converging or triangulating different Qualitative & Quantitative data sources by Jick.
  • 1989-2003: Expanded procedures for Mixed methods By Tashakkori & Teddli and then Creswell.

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

mengapa memakai mmr
Mengapamemakai MMR?
  • Quantitative data can reveal generalizable information for a large group of people
    • These data often fail to provide specific answers, reasons, explanations or examples
  • Qualitative research provides data about meaning and context regarding the people and environments of study
    • Findings are often not generalizable because of the small numbers & narrow range of participants
  • Both methods have strengths and weaknesses
    • When used together, these methods can be complimentary

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

tipe tipe desain penelitian
Tipe-tipedesainpenelitian

Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

kriteria untuk memilih strategi
KriteriaUntukMemilihStrategi

Four decisions go into selecting a mixed methods strategy

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

kriteria untuk memilih strategi1
KriteriaUntukMemilihStrategi
  • What is implementation sequence of the quantitative and qualitative data collection in the proposed study?
  • What priority will be given to the quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis?
  • At what stage in the research project will the quantitative and qualitative data and finding be integrated?
  • Will an overall theoretical perspective (e.g., gender, race/ ethnicity, lifestyle, class) be used in the study?

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

alternatif strategi dan model visual
AlternatifStrategidan Model Visual

Sequential Explanatory Design

QUAN Data Collection

QUAN Data Analysis

Qual Data Collection

Qual Data Analysis

Interpretation of Entre analysis

QUAN

qual

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

alternatif strategi dan model visual1
AlternatifStrategidan Model Visual

Sequential Exploratory Design

QUAL Data Collection

QUAL Data Analysis

Quan Data Collection

Quan Data Analysis

Interpretation of Entre Analysis

QUAL

quan

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

alternative strategies and visual models
Alternative Strategies and Visual Models

Sequential Transformative Design

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

alternative strategies and visual models1
Alternative Strategies and Visual Models

Concurrent Triangulation Strategy

QUAL Data Collection QUAN Data Collection

Qual Data Analysid

Quan Data Analysis

Data Results Compared

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

alternatif strategi dan model visual2
AlternatifStrategidan Model Visual

Concurrent Nested Strategy

Analysis of Findings

Analysis of Findings

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

alternatif strategi dan model visual3
AlternatifStrategidan Model Visual

Concurrent Transformative Strategy

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

prosedur pengumpulan data
ProsedurPengumpulan Data
  • Identify and be specific about the type of data. Some forms of data such as interviews and observations can be either quantitative or qualitative. Although reduction information to numbers is the approach used in quantitative research, it is also used in qual. Research.
  • Recognize that quantitative data often involve random sampling, so that each individual has no equal probability of being selected and the sample can be generalized to the larger population. In qualitative data collection, purposeful sampling is used to that individuals are selected because they have experienced the central phenomenon.

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

prosedur pengumpulan data1
ProsedurPengumpulan Data
  • Relate the procedures specifically to the visual model. For e.g, in a sequential explanatory model, the general procedures can be detailed even further. A discussion of this approach might include describing the use of survey data collection followed by both descriptive and infertial data analysis in the first phase. Then qualitative observations and coding and thematic analysis within an ethnographic design might be mentioned for the second phase.

Sumber: ElhamAhmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

slide81

Analisis Data & Validasinya

It’s related to the type of research strategy chosen for the procedures. Some of the more popular approaches:

Data transformation:

In the concurrent strategies involve creating codes and themes qualitatively, then counting the number of times they occur in the text data. This quantification of qualitative data enables a researcher to compare quantitative results with the qualitative data. For instance, in a factor analysis of data from a scale on an instrument, the researcher may create factors or themes that then can be compared with themes from the qualitative database.

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

slide82

Analisis Data & Validasinya

  • Explore outliers: In a sequential model, an analysis of quantitative data in the first phase can yield extreme or outlier cases. Follow-up qualitative interviews with these outlier cases can provide insight about why they diverged from the quantitative sample.
  • Instrument development: In a sequential approach, obtain themes and specific statements from participants in an initial qualitative data collection. In the next phase, use these statements as specific items and the themes for scales to create a survey instrument that is grounded in the views of the participants. A third, final phase might be to validate the instrument with large sample representative of a population.
  • Examine multiple levels: in a concurrent nested model, conduct a survey at one level (e.g. with families) to gather quantitative results about a sample. At the same time, collect qualitative interviews (e.g., with individuals) to explore the phenomenon with specific individuals in families.

Sumber: ElhamAhmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

slide83

Analisis Data & Validasinya

Validasidiperlukan, baikpadafasekualitatifmaupunfasekuantitatif.

Masing-masingmetodemempunyaicarakhusus; untuk data kualitatif, strateginyaadalahmengujiakurasitemuan-temuanriset.

Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

mixed methods research state of the art what has developed in mixed methods

by John W. Creswell, Ph.D.

Department of Educational Psychology,

University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Co-editor, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, and

Co-Director, Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research

Mixed Methods Research: State of the Art(What Has Developed In Mixed Methods)

sifat mmr
Sifat MMR
  • Deskripsikanpendekataninidalam proposal-penelitian
    • Pelacakansejarahnya
    • Definisi yang jelas
      • Mixed methods research is an approach to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and quantitative forms. It involves philosophical assumptions, the use of qualitative and quantitative approaches, and the mixing of both approaches in a study. Thus, it is more than simply collecting and analyzing both kinds of data; it also involves the use of both approaches in tandem so that the overall strength of a study is greater than either qualitative or quantitative research (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007).
    • Membahastantangan yang dihadapipendekatanini.

Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

perencanaan mmr
Perencanaan MMR

Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

perencanaan mmr1
Perencanaan MMR

Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

disain sequential dan model visual
Disain Sequential dan Model Visual
  • DisainEksplanatoriSekuensial
  • DisainEksploratoriSekuensial
  • Dian TransformatisSekuensial

QUAN

qual

QUAL

quan

QUAL quanSocial science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview

QUAN qualSocial science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview

Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

disain konkuren dan model visual
DisainKonkurendan Model Visual

QUAN

QUAL

  • DisainTriangulasiKonkuren (bersamaan)

+

  • Disain Embedded Konkuren
  • DisainTransformatifKonkuren

QUAN

QUAL

qual

quan

QUAN + QUAL Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview

QUAL Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview

quan

Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

pengumpulan data
Pengumpulan Data
  • Identifikasitipe-tipe data quantitative danqualitatif
  • Menyusunprosedur sampling yang dapatmencakupaspek-aspek random-sampling dan purposeful-sampling
  • Membuatbagan / diagram alir yang detail tentangpenelitian

Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

analisis data dan validasinya
Analisis Data danValidasinya
  • Match data analysis to the mixed methods strategy of inquiry
  • Prosedur-prosedur yang populermeliputi :
    • Transformasi Data
    • Explore outliers
    • Instrument development
    • Examine multiple levels
    • MembuatMatriks.
  • ProsedurValidasi:
    • Quantitative procedures (e.g., validity and reliability of scores)
    • Qualitative procedures (e.g., check accuracy of findings)
    • Mixed methods procedures (e.g., legitimation of the mixed methods study)

Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

struktur laporan hasil penelitian
StrukturLaporanHasilPenelitian
  • Report structure follows from the mixed methods strategy of inquiry
    • Studi Sequential :
      • Organize the report into sections ordered to match the phases of the study
    • StudiKonkuren :
      • Organize the data collection into separate sections
      • The analysis and interpretation may be combined
    • StudiTransformatif:
      • Use either a sequential or concurrent report structure
      • Advance the advocacy issue at the beginning and an agenda for change at the end

Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

slide93
by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Andrews University, July, 2004

BAGAIMANA MERANCANG MMR ?

bagaimana menggabungkan dua data
Data TeksKualitatif

This is a sample of a text file of words that might be collected on transcripts through interviews, fieldnotes from observations, or from optically-scanned documents.

Data numerikkuantitatif

2342543112232132

23322543

3122432432132433

32334441

2222111432143213

22111555

2331432432132433

32135432

Bagaimanamenggabungkandua data?

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

data kuantitatif dan kualitatif
Data Kuantitatif

Close-ended scales

Attitudinal/behavioral scales

Behavioral checklists

Census, attendance records

Data Kualitatif

Open-ended responses

Semi-structured interviews

Semi-structured observations

Records/documents

Videotapes

Data KuantitatifdanKualitatif

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

mengapa kita mengumpulkan dua macam data
Mengapakitamengumpulkanduamacam data ?
  • Together quantitative and qualitative data provide both precise measurement and generalizability of quantitative research and the in-depth, complex picture of qualitative research
  • To validate quantitative results with qualitative data
  • We do not have an adequate instrument. Thus, we need to explore views and develop an instrument
  • Our quantitative data provide a general explanation and we need to follow-up with participants and have them explain the quantitative results
  • In our experiment, outcomes to be measured are not enough; they need to be complemented by understanding the process of participants

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

apakah kita mempunyai cukup kemampuan waktu dan sumberdaya
Apakahkitamempunyaicukupkemampuan, waktudansumberdaya ?
  • We need minimum skills in both qualitative and quantitative data collection. What do we need?
  • We need time and resources for extensive data collection and analysis. How much time and resources do we need?

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

apakah analisis data dilakukan secara terpisah sendiri sendiri
Apakahanalisis data dilakukansecaraterpisah, sendiri-sendiri?

Data Kuantitatif

Data Kualitatif

Mixing: converging the data or connecting the data

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

bagaimana kita menggabungkan dua macam data
Bagaimanakitamenggabungkanduamacam data?

Mencampur/ Memadukan data :

Qual

Results

Quan

Menghubungkan data:

Qual

Quan

Results

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

kutipan
Kutipan :

“Combining qualitative and quantitative methods has gained broad appeal in public health research.

The key question has become not whether it is acceptable or legitimate to combine methods, but rather how they will be combined to be mutually supportive and how findings achieved through different methods will be integrated.”

(NIH, Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, 1999).

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

kita harus mendefinisikan mmr dengan jelas
Kita harusmendefinisikan MMR denganjelas
  • Mixed methods research is a design for collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or series of studies to understand a research problem.
  • The purpose of this form of research is that both qualitative and quantitative methods, in combination, provide a better understanding of a research problem or issue than either method alone.

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

kita dapat menggabungkan di dalam single study atau multiple studies
Kita dapatmenggabungkandidalam “Single study” atau “Multiple Studies”

Single Study:

Quan

Qual

Results

Multiple Studies (called multimethod research):

Quan Qual Qual Quan

Study 1 Study 2 Study 3 Study 4

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

bagaimana kita merancang mmr model nya bagaimana
Bagaimanakitamerancang MMR? Model nyabagaimana?

Worldviews, theoretical frameworks, problem and research

question, skills, resources

  • Type of mixed methods design
  • Procedures for:
    • designing the title
    • writing the introduction to a study
    • writing the purpose statement and research
    • questions/hypotheses
    • data collection
    • data analysis
    • writing the mixed methods report
    • evaluating the mixed methods research

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

memilih mmr yang akan digunakan
Memilih MMR yang akandigunakan

Disainapa yang mungkinsesuai?

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

tipe tipe disain mmr
Tipe-tipedisain MMR

I. Triangulation Mixed Methods Design

+

QUAN

Data and Results

QUAL

Data and Results

Interpretation

II. Nested Mixed Methods Design

QUAN

Post-test

Data and Results

QUAN

Pre-test

Data and Results

Qual Process

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

tipe tipe disain mmr1
Tipe-tipedisain MMR

III. MMR Eksplanatori

qual

Data and Results

QUAN

Data and Results

Follow-up

IV. MMR Eksploratori

QUAL

Data and Results

quan

Data and Results

Building

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

disain triangulasi karakteristik
DisainTriangulasi : Karakteristik
  • Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data
  • Collecting these data at the same time in the research procedure
  • Analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data separately
  • Comparing or combining the results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis
  • Example: collect survey data (quantitative) and collect individual interviews (qualitative) and then compare the results

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

kapan disain triangulasi digunakan
KapanDisainTriangulasidigunakan?
  • When you want to combine the advantages of quantitative (trends, large numbers, generalization) with qualitative (detail, small numbers, in-depth)
  • When you want to validate your quantitative findings with qualitative data
  • When you want to expand your quantitative findings with some open-ended qualitative data (e.g., survey with closed- and open-ended data)

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

slide109

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

nested design karakteristik
Nested Design: Karakteristik
  • Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data
  • Collecting both types of data at the same time
  • Having ONE form of data play a smaller role in the study than the other form of data
  • Also,
    • Using one form of data to answer one question; the other form another question
    • Collecting one form of data at one level of analysis and another at another level of analysis
  • Example: You conduct an experiment and during the experiment you gather qualitative interview data. The outcomes of the experiment assessed quantitatively address different questions than the process of the experiment explored qualitatively.

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

nested design kapan digunakan
Nested Design: Kapandigunakan?
  • When you do not have time or resources to commit to extensive quantitative and qualitative data collection
  • When you want to study the process of an experiment as well as the outcomes
  • When you want to examine different levels in an organization

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

slide112

Nested Research Design

Eksperimen

Intervention

Quan

Data collection

Post-test

Quan

Data collection

Pre-test

Process – collection

and analysis of qualitative

data

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

explanatory sequential design karakteristik
Explanatory Sequential Design: Karakteristik
  • Viewing the study as a two-phase project
  • Collecting quantitative data first followed by collecting qualitative data second
  • Typically, a greater emphasis is placed on the quantitative data in the study
  • Example: You first conduct a survey and then follow up with a few individuals who answered positively to the questions through interviews

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

explanatory sequential design kapan digunakan
Explanatory Sequential Design: Kapandigunakan?
  • When you want to explain the quantitative results in more depth with qualitative data (e.g., statistical differences among groups, individuals who scored at extreme levels)
  • When you want to identify appropriate participants to study in more depth qualitatively

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

slide115

ContohDisainEksplanatori

Case Selection

Interpretation –

based on quan

and QUAL results

Quant

itative

Quantitative

Qualitative

Data Collection

(quan)

Data Analysis

(quan)

Data Analysis

(QUAL)

+

Qualitative

Data Collection

Interpretation

Quantitative Data*

Quantitative Analysis

Case Selection

Qualitative Analysis

Selected 5 cases

maximally varying

Identified critical

months in which

smoking varied

Number of cigarettes

Graphic plot of CES

-

Descri

ption of each

Why did changes in

D6 scores over time

case

smoking occur?

CES

-

D6

for each participant

Identification of life

Qualitative Data*

events occurring

Graphic plot of

during critical

cigarettes/day values

Semi

-

structured

months where

over time for each

interviews, audio

smoking increased or

participant

recorded and

decreased

transcribed

Thematic analysis of

life events for each

* Data collected 10 times

case

over the course of a

Cross

-

case thematic

calendar year for 40

analysis

participants

Creswell et al. (in progress)

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

exploratory sequential design karakteristik
Exploratory Sequential Design: Karakteristik
  • Viewing the study as a two-phase project
  • Qualitative data collection precedes quantitative data collection
  • Typically, greater emphasis is placed on the qualitative data in the study
  • Example: You collect qualitative diary entries, analyze the data for themes, and then develop an instrument based on the themes to measure attitudes on a quantitative survey administered to a large sample.

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

exploratory sequential design kapan digunakan
Exploratory Sequential Design: Kapandigunakan?
  • To develop an instrument when one is not available (first explore, then develop instrument)
  • To develop a classification or typology for testing
  • To identify the most important variables to study quantitatively when these variable are not known

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

slide118

Phase I Qualitative Research - Year 1

Unstructured Interviews -

50 participants

8 observations at the site

16 documents

Qualitative Data Collection

Qualitative Data Analysis

Text Analysis: Using QSR N6

Development of codes and themes

for each site

Qualitative Findings

Phase II Quantitative Research - Year 2

Create approximately a 80-item

instrument plus demographics

Quantitative Instrument Development

Administer survey to 500 individuals

Determine factor structure of items and

conduct reliability analysis for scales

Quantitative Test of the Instrument

Quantitative Results

Determine how groups differ

using ANOVA test

Sequential Exploratory Mixed Methods Design

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

bagaimana kita menganalisis data quantitatif dan kualitatif dalam berbagai tipe desain
Qualitative analysis

Text/image data

Coding

Themes

Description

Interrelated themes

Types of analysis:

Quantitative analysis

Numeric data

Descriptive trend analysis

Hypothesis testing, effect size, interval estimates

Bagaimanakitamenganalisis data quantitatifdankualitatif(dalamberbagaitipedesain)?

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

analisis data triangulasi
Analisis Data Triangulasi

QUAN

data collection

QUAL

data collection

  • Separate QUAN
  • and QUAL data
  • analysis

QUAN

data analysis

QUAL

data analysis

  • Two options
    • Data transformation (change
    • QUAL to QUAN or QUAN to QUAL)
    • Comparison (keep separate and
    • compare/contrast)

Results

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

slide121

Contohtransformasi data dari “satuanteks” menjadi “satuannumerik”

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

slide122

Analisis Data Tersarang (Nested)

Quantitative Experiment

Intervention

Quan

Data collection

Post-test

Quan

Data collection

Pre-test

Qualitative Process

Data

Analysis

Pre-test

scores

Themes/Codes/

Interrelated Themes

Post-test scores

or gain scores

Compare/Describe Results

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

analisis data sequensial eksplanatori
Analisis Data SequensialEksplanatori
  • Qual
  • data collection
  • (purposeful sampling)
  • Select cases based on s.d. variables
  • Select cases to represent outliers
  • Select cases to represent extreme cases
  • Select cases to make group comparisons
  • QUAN
  • data analysis
  • Statistical results
  • Outlier cases
  • Extreme cases
  • Qual
  • analysis
  • codes
  • themes
  • cases

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

analisis data sequensial exploratori
Analisis data sequensialExploratori

Quan data analysis

instrument development

Items on a survey

Variables on a survey

Scales on a survey

QUAL data analysis

Quotes

Codes

Themes

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

menggambar bagan disain penelitian
Menggambarbagandisainpenelitian
  • Let’s draw a picture of our design
  • Identify the type of design
  • Add in data collection
  • Add in data analysis
  • Show the flow of activities
  • Add in “products” for our audiences

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

kiat kiat menggambar bagan mmr
Kiat-kiatmenggambarbagan MMR :
  • Give a title to the visual model.
  • Choose either horizontal or vertical layout for the model.
  • Draw boxes for quantitative and qualitative stages of data collection, data analysis and interpretation of the study results.
  • Use capitalized (QUAN) or small letters (quan) to designate priority of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis.
  • Use single-headed arrows to show the flow of procedures in the design.
  • Specify procedures for each quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis stage.
  • Specify expected products or outcomes of each quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis procedure.
  • Make your model simple.
  • Size your model to one page.

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

slide127

Sample Script for a Concurrent Design

(Triangulation or Nested)

“The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study is to better understand a research problem by converging both quantitative (numeric) and qualitative (text or image) data. In this approach, ___________ (quantitative instruments) will be used to measure the relationship between the ________ (independent variables) and __________ (dependent variables).

At the same time in the study, the __________ (central phenomenon) will be explored using _____________ (qualitative interviews, documents, observations, visual materials) with _________ (participants) at ____________ (the research site).”

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

slide128

Sample Script for a Sequential Exploratory Design

“The purpose of this two-phase, exploratory mixed methods study will be to explore participant views with the intent of using this information to develop and test an instrument with a sample from a population. The first phase will be a qualitative exploration of a _______(central phenomenon) by collecting ___________(data) from ____________ (participants) at _______ (research site). Themes from this qualitative data will then be developed into an instrument (or survey) so that the __________ (theory and research questions/hypotheses) can be tested that ________ (relate, compare) ____________ (independent variable) with __________ (dependent variable) for _________(sample of a population) at _________ (research site).”

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

slide129

Sample Script for a Sequential Explanatory Design

“The purpose of this two-phase, explanatory mixed methods study will be to obtain statistical, quantitative results from a sample and then follow-up with a few individuals to probe or explore those results in more depth. In the first phase, quantitative research questions or hypotheses will address the relationship or comparison of __________ (independent) and ________ (dependent) variables with ___________ (participants) at ___________(the research site). In the second phase, qualitative interviews or observations will be used to problem significant _______(quantitative results) by exploring aspects of the ________ (central phenomenon) with

_______ (a few participants) at ____________ (research site).”

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

kriteria evaluasi rencana riset
Use appropriate terminology for title and design

Provide a rationale for mixing and include it early in the study (“when you use…”)

Create a mixed methods purpose statement

Identify types of qual and quan data to be collected and qual and quan data analysis steps

Include a visual/procedural diagram of methods with timeline

Use rigorous procedures for the quantitative data collection and analysis

KriteriaEvaluasiRencanaRiset:

Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

m m r1
.M.M.R.

Diunduhdari: http://img.blogpdf.com/30/30230340-big-2.jpg…… 26/10/2012

mixed method research mmr2

MK. METIL-PDKL-PPSUB

MIXED METHOD RESEARCHMMR

I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO

sumber richard watson todd http arts kmutt ac th crs research mmda ppt
Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

MIXED-METHODS DATA ANALYSISGraduate Seminar in English Language StudiesSuranaree, March 2011

overview
Overview
  • RisetKuantitatifmurni
  • RisetKualitatifMurni
  • MMR = Mixed-methods research
    • Collecting both QUANT and QUAL data using different instruments
  • MMDA = Mixed-methods data analysis
    • Usually only QUAL data collected
    • Data is treated both quantitatively and qualitatively
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
kuantitatif atau kualitatif
KuantitatifatauKualitatif?
  • QUANT – QUAL distinction in applied linguistics research
  • QUANT: data is numbers; uses statistics
    • Experimental research; surveys
  • QUAL: data is words; uses thematic or narrative interpretation
    • Conversation analysis; ethnography
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mmr mixed methods research1
MMR = Mixed-methods research
  • “MMR melibatkanpengumpulanatauanalisis data kuantitatifdankualitatifdalamsuatustudidenganupayamengintegrasikankeduapendekatanpadasatufaseataulebihdalamprosespenelitiannya” (Dörnyei, 2007)
  • Tujuan:
    • Mencapaipemahaman yang tuntas
    • Triangulasitemuan-temuan.
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
contoh contoh mmr
Contoh-contoh MMR
  • Contoh yang jelek
    • Research into attitudes: survey a large number and interview a predetermined small number of subjects
    • Purpose: unclear
  • Contoh yang agaklebihbaik
    • Research into attitudes: survey a large number of subjects, then, selecting based on questionnaire responses, interview a small number
    • Purpose: follow-up on interesting results
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
contoh contoh mmr1
Contoh-contoh MMR
  • An example of the opposite
    • Interview a small number to gain insights to design a questionnaire, then survey a large number
    • Purpose: informing instrument design
  • Another similar example
    • Research into beliefs: interview 4 teachers but survey 80 students
    • Purpose: accounting for practicality in using instruments
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
contoh contoh mmr2
Contoh-contoh MMR
  • Contoh yang fokuspadatriangulasi
    • Research into strategies: comparing results from different instruments
    • Much strategy research involves the use of SILL
    • SILL asks respondents to identify how often they use a particular strategy
    • Strategy use is context-dependent
    • Research question: Will recent context of learning change responses to SILL?
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
contoh contoh mmr3
Contoh-contoh MMR
  • Metode
    • Subyektunggal
    • Time 1: read academic articles
    • Time 2: read short stories for pleasure
    • Responded to SILL twice
    • Interviewed 4 times (background interview, after SILL responses, summary interview)
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
slide141

Contoh-contoh MMR

  • SILL responses
    • Showed major differences between 2 times e.g. “If I guess the meaning of a word, later I will check whether my guess is correct by using a dictionary.” rated Always at Time 1; Never at Time 2
  • Interview responses
    • Showed that recent learning contexts influenced different ratings
  • Triangulation to confirm results or triangulation to provide different perspectives
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mmda mixed methods data analysis
MMDA = Mixed-methods data analysis

“The most common perception of mixed methods research is that it is a modular process in which qualitative and quantitative components are carried out either concurrently or sequentially.

Although this perception is by and large true, it also suggests that the analysis of the data should proceed independently for the QUANT and QUAL phases and mixing should occur only at the final interpretation stage.

This conclusion is only partially true … we can also start integrating the data at the analysis stage, resulting in what can be called mixed methods data analysis”

Dörnyei (2007)

  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mmda mixed methods data analysis1
MMDA = Mixed-methods data analysis
  • Monodata-multianalysis—this is the analysis of one type of data using both qualitative and quantitative anslysis.
  • The logic of this approach is to:
  • First, analyze your data with the standard approach (e.g., qualitative analysis for your qualitative data or quantitative analysis for your quantitative data).
  • Second, either qualitative or quantitize one set of data for additional analysis.
  • Qualitize—transforming quantitative data into qualitative data (e.g., provide names or labels to quantitative characteristics).
  • Quantitize—transforming qualitative data into quantitative data (e.g., do numerical counts of qualitative categories and themes).
  • MMDA berarti:
    • Quantitising qualitative data
    • Qualitising quantitative data
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mengkuantitatifkan data kualitatif
Mengkuantitatifkan Data Kualitatif
  • Kuantifikasiseringkalidilakukansecaratidaksadar
    • Melakukananalisis “keyword”
    • Menggunakanskor IELTS dalamriset
  • Quantitising helps a qualitative analysis by allowing a reliability check
  • Quantitising can be used to count and compare frequency of themes
  • Quantitising allows further statistical analysis of data, but information is always lost when converting QUAL to QUANT
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mengkualitatifkan data kuantitatif
Mengkualitatifkan Data Kuantitatif

Websites for Qualitative Data Analysis Programs

Program name and Website address

AnSWR (freeware) http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/software/answr.htm

ATLAS http://atlasti.de/

Ethnographhttp://qualisresearch.com

HyperResearchhttp://researchware.com

Nvivohttp://www.qsrinternational.com

NUD*IST http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_previous-products_n6.aspx (Note: NUD*IST is being replaced by NVivo).

  • Tidaklazim, jarangdilakukan
  • Penyusunanprofilnaratif
    • Using quantitatively obtained questionnaire data in a qualitative description of a subject
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mmda yang lebih kompleks
MMDA yang lebihKompleks
  • Sifat Data of QUANT
    • Ringkas
    • Memnungkinkananalisislanjut (Statistikainferensial)
    • Menyediakaninformasiringkas (ikhtisar)
  • Sifat Data QUAL
    • Detail daninformatif
    • Memungkinkanpemahamankasus-kasus
    • Menyediakaninformasi yang mendalam
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mmda yang lebih kompleks1
MMDA yang lebihKompleks
  • What purposes can mixing QUANT and QUAL data analysis serve?
    • Illustration for insight
    • Concise summary to give overview
    • Preliminary overview to inform analysis
    • Providing a more well-rounded and more persuasive analysis
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mmda ilustrasi untuk pemahaman
MMDA: IlustrasiuntukPemahaman
  • In many QUANT studies, it is easy to get lost in the numbers and forget what they mean
  • If the numbers are derived from QUAL data, it is useful to give a QUAL example to concretise the QUANT findings
  • In Case 1, the original data is QUAL; this is quantitised for analysis; a QUAL example is given to concretise the data and to show how the quantitative analyses was applied
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mmda ikhtisar
MMDA: Ikhtisar
  • In some QUAL research (primarily involving categorisation or thematisation), the lengthy, detailed data make it difficult to see the overall pattern
  • It can be useful to provide a QUANT summary as an overview
  • In Case 2, the data is QUAL and analysed in a QUAL way, but the overall pattern of results is presented as QUANT
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mmda telaah awal untuk analisis
MMDA: TelaahawaluntukAnalisis
  • In QUAL studies with large amounts of data, it is difficult for the researcher to ensure that all relevant issues have been identified
  • It is also difficult to see underlying patterns that can be drowned in the sheer quantity of data
  • It is useful to conduct a preliminary QUANT analysis to ensure all issues and underlying patterns are identified
  • In Case 3, QUAL data is treated qualitatively to find keywords which then inform a QUAL thematic analysis
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
mmda analisis yang lebih persuasif
MMDA: Analisis yang lebihpersuasif
  • In QUAL studies with large amounts of data, restricting analysis to either QUANT or QUAL cannot provide a full picture of the data
  • QUAL provides detailed description of the data
  • QUANT provides generalisations of patterns to the whole data set
  • In Case 4, QUAL and QUANT analyses are used together to produce a fuller description of the data
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
penggunaan mmda
Penggunaan

Illustration for insight

Summarise for overview

Inform analysis

Provide full picture

Pola-pola

QUANT → QUAL

QUAL → QUANT

QUANT → QUAL

Mix of QUANT and QUAL

Penggunaan MMDA
  • Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
using mixed methods research to analyze surveys

UsingMIXED METHODS RESEARCH to Analyze Surveys

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

mmr itu apa
MMR ituapa?
  • Sulitmendefiniskannya
  • Contoh-contohdefinisi
    • The use of qualitative and quantitative techniques in both the collection and analysis of data
    • Mixed Methods research is given a priority in the research and the integration of both the quantitative and qualitative results occurs at some point in the research process
    • Research that includes both quantitative and qualitative data in a single research study, and either the QUAN or QUAL data provides data that would not otherwise be obtainable when using only the primary method

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

mengapa mmr penting
Mengapa MMR penting?
  • Answers questions that other modalities cannot
  • Provides a deeper understanding of the examined behavior or a better idea of the meaning behind what is occurring
  • The inferences made with mixed methods research can be stronger
  • Mixed methods research allows for more divergent findings
  • MM research can include culture in the design by giving a voice to everyone involved in the behavior being examined

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

mmr kolaboratif
MMR – Kolaboratif
  • Berupayamelibatkan stakeholders dalamdisaindanprosespenelitian
  • Can be very beneficial when many of the stakeholders are more likely to be critics
  • Includes less powerful groups and helps to ensure that they have an equitable impact on the research
  • Collaboration has the ability to stimulate ways of thinking that might not occur when working individually on a project

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

merancang mmr
Merancang MMR
  • The key to any study is the research question(s) because this dictates the selection of the research methods
  • In designing a study the underlying purpose is the reason for doing it, and is a necessary component
  • Why are we doing the study?
  • The quality of the study and the meaningfulness of the results are enhanced if we are clear about the purpose

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

enam kategori mmr
EnamKategori MMR
  • DisainEksplanatoriSekuensial
  • Disain Exploratory Sekuensial
  • DisainTransformatifSekuensial
  • DisainTriangulasiKonkuren
  • Concurrent Nested Design
  • DisainTransformatifKonkuren

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

desain eksplanatori sekuensial
DesainEksplanatoriSekuensial
  • Collection and analysis of QUAN data followed by the collection and analysis of QUAL data
  • Priority is usually given to QUAN data
  • Integration of QUAN and QUAL data usually occurs in the interpretation phase of the study
  • The purpose is usually to use the QUAL results to help explain the QUAN results

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

desain eksploratori sekuensial
DesainEksploratoriSekuensial
  • Conducted in two phases
  • Priority is given to the first phase of QUAL data collection
  • The second phase involves QUAN data collection
  • Overall priority is given to QUAL data collection and analysis
  • The findings are integrated in the interpretation phase
  • Most basic purpose is to use QUAN data to help interpret the results of the QUAL phase

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

desain transformatif sekuensial
DesainTransformatifSekuensial
  • Mempunyaiduafasepengumpulan data yangtberbeda
  • Perspektifteoritisdipakaiuntukmengarahkanstudi
  • Purpose is to use methods that will best serve the theoretical perspective of the researcher

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

disain triangulasi konkuren
DisainTriangulasiKonkuren
  • This is probably the most familiar MM design
  • The QUAL and QUAN data collection are concurrent, and happen during one data collection phase
  • Priority could be given to either QUAL or QUAN methods, but ideally the priority between the two methods would be equal
  • Two methods are integrated in the interpretation phase
  • The integration focuses on how the results from both methods are similar or different, with the primary purpose being to support each other

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

disain nested konkuren
Disain Nested Konkuren
  • Gathers both QUAL and QUAN data during the same phase
  • Either QUAL or QUAN dominates the design
  • The analysis phase mixes both the QUAL and QUAN data
  • The QUAL data is used to help explain or better understand the QUAN data

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

disain transformatif konkuren
DisainTransformatifKonkuren
  • Guided by a specific theoretical perspective
  • The QUAN and QUAL data are collected during the same phase
  • The integration of data occurs during the analysis phase
  • The integration of data could occur in the interpretation phase
  • Again, the purpose is to use methods that will best serve the theoretical perspective of the researcher

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

proses integrasi data qual dan quan
ProsesIntegrasi Data QUAL dan QUAN
  • The process of integrating QUAL and QUAN research needs to be well thought out prior to the study
    • QUAL portion needs to be constructed in a way so that more novel information can be discovered
    • Need to decide if QUAL portion is exploratory or confirmatory
  • If exploratory, the purpose is to identify other dimensions that the QUAN portion is missing
  • If confirmatory, the purpose is to support the QUAN relationship
  • QUAL results can also be used to explain why there wasn’t a statistically significantly difference

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

arahan untuk integrasi hasil hasil qual dan quan
ArahanuntukIntegrasiHasil-hasil QUAL dan QUAN
  • Selection of research methods need to be made after the research questions are asked
  • Some methods work well in some domains and not in others
  • There is no model of integration that is better than another
  • When there are results that support each other, it is possible that both the QUAN and QUAL results are biased and both are not valid
  • The main function of integration is to provide additional information where information obtained from one method only was is insufficient
  • If the results lead to divergent results, then more than one explanation is possible

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

mengintegrasikan data qual dan quan
Mengintegrasikan Data QUAL dan QUAN
  • One process of incorporating QUAL data with QUAN data is known as quantitizing, or quantifying the open-ended responses
    • Dummy Coding (i.e. binarizing) – refers to giving a code of 1 when a concept is present and a code of 0 if it is not present

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

menyajikan temuan temuan mmr
MenyajikanTemuan-temuan MMR
  • As with any research findings, if they cannot be communicated to the people who can use the information than the findings are worthless
  • Presenting MM research can be more challenging because we are trying to communicate two types of information to readers
  • For instance, writing-up QUAN research is very well defined, and QUAL research is more often about discovery

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

menjamin relevansi temuan temuan mmr
Menjaminrelevansitemuan-temuan MMR
  • Melibatkansemua stakeholders dalammerencanakanpenelitian
  • Using MM research design may help a wider range of audiences connect to the material
  • Make sure to define the language used in the report
  • It is important to decide how the MM research findings are going to be written: combined or separately

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

contoh mmr
Contoh MMR
  • The form was not developed by IR
  • Evaluated paid tutors on five job qualification areas
    • Job skills
    • Job knowledge
    • Work habits
    • Communication skills
    • Attitude
  • Three point rubric was used to evaluate paid tutors
    • Did not meet the requirement
    • Met the requirement
    • Exceeded requirements
  • Evaluators were also asked to provide comments

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

slide171

Contoh MMR

  • How did I combine the qualification ratings (QUAN) with the evaluator comments (QUAL)?
  • Found an example of how to do this from Sandelowski (2003)
  • Sandelowski provided an example where the QUAN responses were categorized and themes for each category were generated from the open-ended comments

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

slide172

Contoh MMR

  • First step is to create the categories from the QUAN data
  • This step involves being very familiar with your data, and also some creativity
  • With the paid tutor evaluation it was fairly easy to develop the categories
    • Paid tutors who received a perfect rating in every category (n = 13)
    • Paid tutors who had an average ranking equal to or above the mean (n = 5)
    • Paid tutors who had an average below the mean (n = 11)

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

slide173

Contoh MMR

  • Mencampur data QUAL dan QUAN dalamfaseanalisis data
  • After I created the three categories I printed out the comments associated with the paid tutors for each category and identified a theme for each one

Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College. www.chaffey.edu/research

mixed method research mmr3

MK. METIL-PDKL-PPSUB

MIXED METHOD RESEARCHMMR

I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO

slide175
.MMR.

CONTOH-CONTOH

PUBLIKASI

journal of mixed methods research
.Journal of Mixed Methods Research.

The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) is an innovative, quarterly, interdisciplinary, international publication that focuses on empirical, methodological, and theoretical articles about mixed methods research across the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences.

The journal's scope includes delineating where mixed methods research may be used most effectively, illuminating design and procedure issues, and determining the logistics of conducting mixed methods research.

Diunduh dari: http://mmr.sagepub.com/…… 21/9/2012

slide177

DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Mixed methods research (also called mixed research) is becoming increasingly articulated, attached to research practice, and recognized as the third major research approach or research paradigm, along with qualitative research and quantitative research.

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

slide178

DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

A History of Mixed Methods Research

We would position mixed research between the extremes Plato (quantitative research) and the Sophists (qualitative research), with mixed research attempting to respect fully the wisdom of both of these viewpoints while also seeking a workable middle solution for many (research) problems of interest.

Today, the primary philosophy of mixed research is that of pragmatism.

Mixed methods research is, generally speaking, an approach to knowledge (theory and practice) that attempts to consider multiple viewpoints, perspectives, positions, and standpoints (always including the standpoints of qualitative and quantitative research).

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

slide179

DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Mixed research, in its recent history in the social and behavioral or human sciences, started with researchers and methodologists who believed qualitative and quantitative viewpoints and methods were useful as they addressed their research questions.

For the 20th century, “mixed research” (in the sense of including what we, today, would call qualitative and quantitative data) can be seen in the work of cultural anthropologists and, especially, the fieldwork sociologists.

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

slide180

DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Denzin (1978) defined triangulation as “the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon” .

The four types of triangulation:

Data triangulation (i.e., use of a variety of sources in a study),

Investigator triangulation (i.e., use of several different researchers),

Theory triangulation (i.e., use of multiple perspectives and theories to interpret the results of a study), and

Methodological triangulation (i.e., use of multiple methods to study a research problem).

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

slide181

DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Jick (1979) noted the following advantages of triangulation:

It allows researchers to be more confident of their results;

It stimulates the development of creative ways of collecting data;

It can lead to thicker, richer data;

It can lead to the synthesis or integration of theories;

It can uncover contradictions, and

By virtue of its comprehensiveness, it may serve as the litmus test for competing theories.

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

slide182

DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Greene, Caracelli, and Graham (1989) identified the five purposes or rationales of mixed methodological studies:

Triangulation (i.e., seeking convergence and corroboration of results from different methods studying the same phenomenon),

Complementarity(i.e., seeking elaboration, enhancement, illustration, clarification of the results from one method with results from the other method),

Development (i.e., using the results from one method to other method),

Initiation (i.e., discovering paradoxes and contradictions that lead to a reframing of the research question), and

Expansion (i.e., seeking to expand the breadth and range of inquiry by using different methods for different inquiry components).

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

slide183

DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Collins, Onwuegbuzie, and Sutton (2006) identified four rationales for conducting mixed research:

Participant enrichment (e.g., mixing quantitative and qualitative research to optimize the sample using techniques that include recruiting participants),

Instrument fidelity (e.g., assessing the appropriateness and/or utility of existing instruments, creating new instruments, monitoring performance of human instruments),

Treatment integrity (i.e., assessing fidelity of intervention),

Significance enhancement (e.g., facilitating thickness and richness of data, augmenting interpretation and usefulness of findings).

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Definitions of Mixed Methods Research

Huey Chen:

Mixed methods research is a systematic integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study for purposes of obtaining a fuller picture and deeper understanding of a phenomenon.

Mixed methods can be integrated in such a way that qualitative and quantitative methods retain their original structures and procedures (pure form mixed methods). Alternatively, these two methods can be adapted, altered, or synthesized to fit the research and cost situations of the study (modified form mixed methods).

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

John Creswell:

Mixed methods research is a research design (or methodology) in which the researcher collects, analyzes, and

mixes (integrates or connects) both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or a multiphase program

of inquiry.

Steve Currall:

Mixed methods research involves the sequential or simultaneous use of both qualitative and quantitative data

collection and/or data analysis techniques.

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Isadore Newman:

Mixed methods research is a set of procedures that should be used when integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures reflects the research question(s) better than each can independently.

The combining of quantitative and qualitative methods should better inform the researcher and the effectiveness of mixed methods should be evaluated based upon how the approach enables the investigator to answer the research question(s) embedded in the purpose(s) (why the study is being conducted or is needed; the justification) of the study.

(Newman, Ridenour, Newman & DeMarco, 2003.)

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Mixed methods research is the type of research in which a researcher or team of researchers combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches (e.g., use of qualitative and quantitative viewpoints, data collection, analysis, inference techniques) for the broad purposes of breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration.

This definition refers to mixed methods research as a type of research:

A mixed methods study would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program would involve mixing within a program of research and the mixing might occur across a closely related set of studies.

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Graphic of the Three Major Research Paradigms, Including Subtypes

of Mixed Methods Research

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

What are effective strategies for integration at different stages of the research process?

Bazeley (2006) has carefully examined how to integrate qualitative and quantitative data using data analysis software.

Tashakkori and Teddlie (2006) discussed the process of making metainferences (that are based on the integration of qualitative and quantitative strands in research studies).

The key idea that mixed methods research requires some form of integration is clear; still, however, additional research is needed to further explicate this process.

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Does mixed methods need a particular, detailed set of philosophical and methodological positions?

Variation in particular philosophical commitments should be welcome in mixed methods research, and we should embrace these differences as an important part of the mixed methods research paradigm.

It is important that arguments and discussion about “appropriate” philosophical commitments continue, so that the field is self-reflexive and continues to grow (philosophically).

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Are equal status designs (equal use of quantitative and qualitative epistemologies) possible?

To address specifically the issue of mixing ideas associated with research paradigms, we have introduced a concept called commensurability validity or legitimation, which is “the extent to which the meta-inferences made [in a mixed methods study] reflect a mixed worldview based on the cognitive process of Gestalt switching and integration” .

The strong (or fully) mixed methods position, we argue, is developed only after explicit and systematic consideration of qualitative and quantitative perspectives.

Diunduh dari: http://drupal.coe.unt.edu/sites/default/files/24/59/Johnson,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Should and how might qualitative dominant, equal status, and quantitative dominant mixed methods research be more fully developed and differentiated?

Will the qualitative and quantitative dominant mixed research be explicitly incorporated into the qualitative and quantitative research paradigms or will they develop as distinct types?

This should be an exciting area for future research as researchers and methodologists coming from different epistemological perspectives construct and systematize these subtypes.

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research?

That is, exactly

When and under what conditions should qualitative research be considered the appropriate approach,

When and under what conditions should quantitative research be considered the appropriate approach, and

When and under what conditions should mixed research be considered the appropriate approach?

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research?

A strength of a contingency theory of research is that the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research are recognized, and all three approaches are considered to be important and needed, albeit in different circumstances.

A contingency theory also needs to be carefully developed to help the mixed methods researcher make wise decisions about how to mix methods and approaches in relation to situational contingencies (e.g., given limited resources, what is the best combination to maximize usefulness of information and evidence?).

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

A fuller definition of mixed methods research might include reference to the logic of mixed research.

We believe that additional work is needed to explicate this logic or set of logics.

When designing a mixed study, according to this “logic,” the research should strategically combine qualitative and quantitative methods, approaches, and concepts in a way that produces complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses.

Consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches is required in relation to situational contingencies.

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Tenth, will the field be able to develop a typology of mixed methods designs that can be broadly agreed upon?

Currently, several typologies are available including, for example, Creswell and Plano Clark (2007), Morgan (1998), and Teddlie and Tashakkori (2006).

Do the qualitative dominant, quantitative dominant, and pure mixed methods research need separate sets of designs? We tentatively suggest that the answer is yes.

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DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Eleventh, and last, if one were to view mixed methods research, metaphorically, as the trunk of a tree, then what are its branches?

For example, should the major branches be labeled QUAL+quan, QUAN+qual, and QUAN+QUAL? What other branches or specialized types might develop over time (e.g., transformative mixed methods, collaborative mixed methods, reflective mixed methods)?

We expect many more specific types of mixed methods research and designs to crystallize in the future as researchers relate mixed methods research concepts and thinking to new and reoccurring research problems and situations.

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A Multimethod Approach to the Study of Sensitive Organizational Issues

Karen A. Jehn and Karsten Jonsen

Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 313-341

Sensitive organizational issues such as conflict, lying and deceit, and personal health issues are difficult to investigate because of their complex, elusive, and sometimes threatening nature as well as their potential consequences.

In this article, an approach is presented that uses triangulation of multiple quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate sensitive organizational issues.

This study of organizational conflict illustrates special data elicitation techniques (e.g., tree graphs, third-person questioning) designed to decrease the reluctance of employees to respond to various forms of inquiry.

The qualitative approach complements the survey methods by identifying, categorizing, and verifying the existence of constructs.

The benefits of the elicitation techniques, computerized text analysis, and multimethod comparison processes as remedies for research problems accentuated in studies of sensitive organizational issues are discussed.

Diunduh dari: http://mmr.sagepub.com/content/4/4/313.abstract …… 21/9/2012

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Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

Pamela M. Wesely

Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 295-312.

This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students’ language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program.

A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed.

Data analysis procedures included a theme analysis of the interview data, a statistical analysis of the survey data, and an integrated consideration of the qualitative and quantitative findings.

It was found that mixed methods research can be uniquely revealing about social psychological constructs such as motivation, it can offer new perspectives where previous studies were contradictory, and it can accommodate multiple theoretical frameworks.

Diunduh dari: http://mmr.sagepub.com/content/4/4/295.abstract …… 21/9/2012

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The Use and Added Value of Mixed Methods in Management Research

José F. Molina-Azorίn

. Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no. 1 7-24

The prevalence, characteristics, and added value of mixed methods articles published in two management fields are examined through a sequential mixed methods design with four phases.

The results show that mixed methods articles are published in management journals with different prevalence rates and characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of the impact and added value of mixed methods to the field of management is carried out.

Implications for scholars, academic institutions, and journals with regard to the application and publication of mixed methods research are examined.

Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012

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Refining a Location Analysis Model Using a Mixed Methods Approach: Community Readiness as a Key Factor in Siting Rural Palliative Care Services

Valorie A. Crooks, Nadine Schuurman, Jonathan Cinnamon, Heather Castleden, Rory Johnston.

Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no. 1 77-95.

Drawing on recent debates pointing to the value of mixed methods research in human geography, the authors revisit a quantitative location analysis model previously created to site palliative care services in rural British Columbia, Canada.

The original quantitative model posited that population (i.e., number of residents in the community), isolation (i.e., travel time to existing specialized palliative care), and vulnerability (i.e., number of residents older than 65 years in the community) are three factors that must be accounted for when siting palliative care services in rural areas.

Using qualitative interview data, the authors refine this model to include a newly identified factor: community readiness.

They conclude with a discussion of the benefits of adopting a mixed methods approach to location analysis model development.

Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012

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A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses

Felipe González Castro,Joshua G. Kellison, Stephen J. Boyd, Albert Kopak

Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 342-360

Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods.

The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities.

Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses.

This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors’ ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies.

Diunduh dari: http://mmr.sagepub.com/content/4/4/342.short?rss=1&amp%3bssource=mfr …… 21/9/2012

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Multiple Research Approaches.

IJMRA = International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches is an international peer-reviewed journal for timely publication of global research, scholarship, educational, researcher and practitioner perspectives on multiple, hybrid (outcome of unusual blending), synergistic (combined effect), integrated and cultural research approaches (be these Indigenous, institutional, or community based) including the Asian, Arctic, Pacific, Latin American and African regions, as well as European and North American.

The journal's primary focus is effectively to combine various theoretical frameworks, methodologies and methods to address current research questions appropriately.

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e-contentmanagement.com/ …… 21/9/2012

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Beyond the ceiling effect: Using a mixed methods approach to measure patient satisfaction

Sharon Andrew, Yenna Salamonson, Bronwyn Everett, Elizabeth J Halcomb, Patricia M Davidson. IJMRA 2011 5(1): 052 - 063.

This study reports patient satisfaction with the nursing care on a neurosurgical critical care unit. A modified version of the Ludwig-Beymer Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-7) was used, and included structured items and semi-structured interview questions. Data were collected from 149 patients. Participants rated their satisfaction as high (Mean = 25.14; SD = 2.96). The distribution of scores was skewed and every item demonstrated a ceiling effect. Principal component analysis yielded a one-component solution which explained 48% of the variance.

NVivo® was used to match PSQ-7 scores with qualitative data. Participants' comments were categorised as positive, negative or 'yes, but'. Just over half the patients made positive comments and 29% of patients in the low group made negative comments. Three categories: 'communication', 'nursing care delivery' and 'the hospital environment' emerged from the qualitative data.

A mixed method approach enables researchers to move beyond the ceiling effect of quantitative measures of patient satisfaction and to gain a more meaningful explanation of patient satisfaction.

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e-contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/5/issue/1/article/3854/beyond-the-ceiling-effect …… 22/9/2012

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Integrating qualitative and quantitative research approaches via the phenomenological method

William Paul Fisher AND A Jackson Stenner

IJMRA 2011 5(1): 089 - 103.

Separated and mixed applications of qualitative and quantitative methods are typically encumbered by markedly different philosophical orientations. Multiple inefficiencies arise when mixed methods work at cross purposes with each other.

The phenomenological method, however, has the potential to integrate qualitative and quantitative concerns in ways that orient research towards uniform criteria of substantive meaningfulness and mathematical rigour. Three characteristics of a qualitative-quantitative methodological pluralism are described: structural invariance, substantive interpretability and the display of anomaly.

When combined with networked information technologies, new opportunities emerge for a qualitatively meaningful and quantitatively precise measurement framework in the research and practice of the health sciences.

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e-contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/5/issue/1/article/3856/integrating-qualitative-and-quantitative-research …… 23/9/2012

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Tracking employees' twists and turns: Describing a mixed methods approach to assessing change in the psychological contract

Sarah BankinsIJMRA 2011 5(3): 351 - 366

The psychological contract is a key analytical device utilised by both academics and practitioners to conceptualise and explore the operation of the employment relationship. However, despite the recognised importance of the construct, some authors suggest that its empirical investigation has fallen into a 'methodological rut' [Conway & Briner, 2005, p. 89] and neglects to assess key tenets of the concept, such as its temporal and dynamic nature.

This paper outlines the research design of a longitudinal, mixed methods study which draws upon the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative modes of inquiry in order to explore the development of, and changes in, the psychological contract.

Supported by a critical realist philosophy, the paper offers a research design suitable for exploring the processes of change not only within the psychological contract, but also similar constructs in the human resource management and broader organisational behaviour fields.

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e-contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/5/issue/3/article/4462/tracking-employees-twists-and-turns …… 21/9/2012

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.Mixed method research designs: A case study of their adoption in a doctor of business administration program

Peter John Miller, Roslyn CameronIJMRA 2011 5(3) : 387 - 402

The paper presents empirical data concerning the utilisation of mixed method research in Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) research projects (theses). The Southern Cross University, Australia, DBA program was established in 1996 as a research degree and has successfully graduated over 250 graduates from a diverse range of countries across the globe. It is the largest DBA program in the Australasia.

The research will present prevalence rates of mixed methods research utilised by doctoral candidates, data will be presented on the most frequently used data collection methods and research approaches within the field of business and management, with empirical data from a number of countries including Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. Emergent issues with regard to the use of mixed methods research in business and management research and the teaching of mixed methods are discussed.

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e-contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/5/issue/3/article/4445/mixed-method-research-designs …… 23/9/2012

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. Combined methods in poverty analysis: Experiences from Namibia Sebastian Levine, Benjamin RobertsIJMRA 2008 2(2): 205-211

We explore differences in the findings on poverty in Namibia from a series participatory poverty assessments and a household survey on household income and expenditure. We find that the main conclusions from these research processes appear plausible even if they point to diverging paths of poverty. These results are attributed to methodological challenges and especially to different perceptions about the determinants of poverty that each approach conveys.

Using a Q-Squared approach we illustrate that when definitions of poverty based on the perceptions raised in the qualitative assessments are used on the quantitative data then the results tend to converge. One particularly interesting finding is that those identified as poor using the official poverty measure, established explicitly to capture deprivation in consumption expenditure, have higher average levels of consumption expenditure than a combined Q-Squared measure based exclusively on non-monetary criteria.

We generally find that while there might have been a real improvement in consumption-based measures of poverty over time, given the emphasis on issues related to assets, access to and quality of delivery of basic services, and issues related to vulnerabilities (especially food insecurity and the AIDS epidemic) in the participatory poverty assessments, it is not surprising that the qualitative data point to deteriorating living conditions.

Diunduh dari: http://mra.e-contentmanagement.com/archives/vol/2/issue/2/article/2368/combined-methods-in-poverty-analysis …… 23/9/2012

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QUALITY & QUANTITY:

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODOLOGY.

Quality and Quantity constitutes a point of reference for European and non-European scholars to discuss instruments of methodology for more rigorous scientific results in the social sciences.

The journal publishes papers on models of classification, methods for constructing typologies, models of simulation, neural networks and fuzzy sets for social research, mathematical models applied to social mobility, mathematical models of voting behavior, qualitative methodology and feminist methodology, discussions on the general logic of empirical research, analysis of the validity and verification of social laws, and similar topics.

Quality and Quantity is an interdisciplinary journal which systematically correlates disciplines such as mathematics and statistics with the social sciences, particularly sociology, economics, and social psychology.

Diunduh dari: http://www.springer.com/social+sciences/journal/11135 …… 23/9/2012

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Passenger satisfaction: a multi-group analysis

Laura Antonucci, Corrado Crocetta, Francesco D. d’Ovidio and Ernesto Toma

Quality & Quantity. 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11135-012-9771-7

..

To analyse the level of passenger satisfaction of a public local transport service, after an explorative factorial analysis, a Structural Equation Model was adopted. The main goal of this paper is to verify how much some service characteristics could influence the perceived quality of the service.

The passengers are found very sensitive to the level of the service organization and to the way the service is delivered (punctuality and regularity, and short waiting time). The safety and reliability of buses, the level of comfort and cleanness and the professionalism and courtesy of staff had, also, a big weight to determinate of the customer satisfaction. Applying a further analysis on different sub-samples, based on individual characteristics, we found that the model above identified is full invariant for different residence area and frequency of use of the service, and partially invariant for age groups, employment status, time slot of use and reason of use.

The test of invariance the structural coefficients failed considering gender or education level of the passengers.

Diunduh dari: http://www.springerlink.com/content/102985/?Content+Status=Accepted&MUD=MP …… 23/9/2012

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. Measuring the quality of work: the case of the Italian social cooperative

Maurizio Carpita and Silvia Golia

Quality & Quantity. 2012 46(6): 1659-1685

Quality of work has within a short time become a major subject of study and discussion in labour economy.

Its quantification is a challenging task because it implies the translation of various subjective perceptions into a single objective measure (composite indicator).

In this paper, the method used to construct measures is the Rating Scale Model and the available data come from the Survey on Italian Social Cooperatives carried out in 2007.

The validity of the obtained Rasch measures is tested with respect to some overall variables of the quality of work.

Moreover, using inferential confidence intervals, these measures are utilized to evaluate the differences in the perception of the quality of work due to worker (gender, age and education) and cooperative (type, dimension and geographic area) characteristics, work characteristics (service area, membership, time and type of contract) and work incentives (economic, professional and learning).

Diunduh dari: http://www.springerlink.com/content/r7n84400q456/ …… 23/9/2012

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Combining research techniques to improve quality service in hospitality

Mar Vila, Xari Rovira, Gerard Costa and Ricard Santoma.

Quality & Quantity. Volume 46. Number 3 / April 2012 . P. 795-812

.

Hospitality research includes many studies that combine and revisit the quantitative–qualitative debate, and review the arguments for and against using mixed-methods. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of qualitative methodologies based on the combination of techniques which also include quantitative elements in addition to those pertaining to qualitative techniques.

The research aims to specifically identify the most important managerial factors which, from the point of view of hotel chain executives, serve to improve the quality of the service they provide.

The techniques used are concept mapping and qualitative optimization, both of which are qualitative methodologies though they include quantitative elements to overcome the subjectivity deficits typically found in qualitative methodologies. In addition, the combination of both techniques leads to greater precision of the results obtained. Our methodological proposal combines concept mapping with qualitative optimisation, thereby improving the prioritisation and hierarchical ordering of the ideas obtained and structured.

Instead of working with each cluster’s average score in terms of importance (as defined within the concept mapping model), our contribution is based on prioritising these based on their distance to the optimal reference. This allows for experts’ evaluations of each idea in terms of its importance to not be strictly quantitative, that is, the experts are not obligated to assign numbers to their evaluations; rather, they can assess ideas based on qualitative labels.

Diunduh dari: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0033-5177/46/3/ …… 23/9/2012

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. A Multimethod Approach to Identifying Norms and Normative Expectations Within a Corporate Hierarchy: Evidence from the Financial Services Industry

Stephen V. Burks and Erin L. Krupka

Management Science January 2012 vol. 58 no. 1 203-217.

We use an incentive-compatible economic experiment and surveys in the field at a large financial services firm to identify the norms for on-the-job behavior among financial advisers and their leaders, and the normative expectations each group has of the other.

We examine whistle-blowing on a peer, an incentive clash between serving the client and earning commissions, and a dilemma about fiduciary responsibility to a client.

We find patterns of agreement among advisers, among leaders, and between the two groups, that are consistent with company guidelines identified ex ante. However, we also find measurable differences between what leaders expect and the actual norms of advisers.

When there is such a mismatch we are able to distinguish miscommunication from ethical disagreement between leaders and advisers.

Finally, we show that when advisers' personal ethical opinions do not match group norms, this mismatch is correlated with job dissatisfaction and lying for money in a second experiment.

Diunduh dari: http://mansci.journal.informs.org/content/58/1/203.abstract …… 23/9/2012

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. MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN.

The nature of mixed methods design of the research

Being a pragmatist, the current research methodology is a mixed methods research design. Mixed methods design is a type of research which involves ‘the collection or analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study in which the data are collected concurrently or sequentially (Creswell, 2003; Creswell, 2008).

Diunduh dari: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wie/courses/degrees/docs/who/students/edrhal/research/design/armpaper/ …… 23/9/2012

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. MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN.

The nature of mixed methods design of the research

According to Gray (2009), ‘mixed methods design is used in circumstances where relatively little or nothing is known about the research setting or research problems.

In such situations, it would be unfeasible and impractical to design a questionnaire, since the constructs being measured are either unknown or not sufficiently understood.

The qualitative study, then, explores, identifies and can provide clarity about the kinds of variables requiring further investigation.’

Diunduh dari: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wie/courses/degrees/docs/who/students/edrhal/research/design/armpaper/ …… 23/9/2012

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. Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture-Link in Innovation Management

Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger

Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September 2010.

Two trends in innovation management have influenced the basic idea of this paper. The first trend shows increased attempts by managers to utilize linear innovation processes derived from literature and from practice. The second trend is an increasing acceptance of the dynamics created in an "innovation culture," as being one of the key drivers of innovation. Both approaches partially contrast each other.

The missing link between innovation process design and innovation culture at the firm-level provides the theoretical framework of this paper. Behind the scenes of innovation management studies, we realized a methodological gap existed between the research of innovation cultures and their impact upon an organization's innovation processes.

Thus, we applied a methodological mix of problem-centered interviews, structural analyses, and context analyses to study the phenomenon. We conducted an interview-based single case study in a Swiss telecommunications company. From these methodologies we created a themed landscape comprising relational topics of the innovation dynamics within an innovation project in the company (one year duration) and briefly described each topic.

The main finding in our study is the dynamic role-model that innovation managers in large service firms have to apply to succeed in their innovation management work. Thus, our methodological mix proved to be helpful, although some weaknesses remain to be solved in the future.

Diunduh dari: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1560/3073 …… 23/9/2012

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. Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture-Link in Innovation Management

Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger

Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September 2010.

Diunduh dari: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1560/3073 …… 23/9/2012

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.The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services?

Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.

. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

As one prominent form of sustainable innovation, eco-efficient services have been promoted as a promising way towards more sustainable societies. However, they have not turned into reality as expected. This paper argues that one of the primary reasons for the slow market penetration of eco-efficient services is the mismatch between customers’ needs and service providers’ offerings.

In order to start to bridge the knowledge gap, we investigate such customer needs through the analysis of interview and survey data obtained from over 300 potential customer companies in Finland, most of which operate either in the EU or globally.

The paper discusses what kinds of eco-efficient services customers need and under what conditions, and which barriers hinder the use of eco-efficient services by business customers. The customer companies desire material efficiency services for managing side streams and non-core processes.

They primarily seek cost and broader business-efficiency improvements from these services, and find that service providers should be able to construct a clear business case when marketing services.

Finally, although there are material efficiency services in the market, customer companies find they are not being marketed actively.

Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652611005440 …… 23/9/2012

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. The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services?

Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.

. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

Framework for the study: Factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services according to previous research.

Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652611005440 …… 23/9/2012

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. The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services?

Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.

. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

Complemented framework: A comprehensive set of factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services.

Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652611005440…… 23/9/2012

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EXPLORING MIXED METHODS RESEARCH (MMR)

Diunduhdari: http://publications.mcgill.ca/medenews/files/2010/12/mixed-methods-research-figure2.jpg…… 26/9/2012

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Andrew, S. and E. Halcomb (eds). 2009. Mixed Methods Research for Nursing and the Health Sciences Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
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Greene, J.C., & Caracelli, V.J. (2003). Making paradigmatic sense of mixed methods practice. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 91-110). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Erzberger, C., & Kelle, U. (2003). Making inferences in mixed methods: The rules of integration. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 457-488). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mertens, D.M. (2003). Mixed methods and the politics of human research: The transformative-emancipatory perspective. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 135-164). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Miller.S. (2003). Impact of mixed methods and design on inference quality. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 423-455). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Miller, S.I., & Gatta, J.L. (2006). The use of mixed methods and designs in the human sciences: Problems and prospects. Quality & Quantity, 40, 595-610. Retrieved June 1, 2008 from the Academic Search Premier database.

Moghaddam, F.M., Walker, B.R., & Harre, R. (2003). Cultural distance, levels of abstraction, and the advantages of mixed methods. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 111-134). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Morse, J.M. (2003). Principles of mixed methods and multimethod research design. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 189-208). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Newman, I., Ridenour, C.S., Newman, C., & DeMarco, G.M.P. (2003). A typology of research purposes and its relationship to mixed methods. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 167-188). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Oermann, M.H., Galvin, E.A., Floyd, J.A., & Roop, J.C. (2006). Presenting research to clinicians: strategies for writing about research findings. Nurse Researcher, 13, 66-74. Retrieved July 25, 2008 from the Academic Search Premier database.

Onwuegbuzie, A.J., & Teddlie, C. (2003). A framework for analyzing data in mixed methods research. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 351-383). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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Shulha, L.M. & Wilson, R.J. (2003). Collaborative mixed methods research. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 639-669). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (2003). Major issues and controversies in the use of mixed methods in the social and behavioral sciences. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddie’s (Ed.) Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 3-50). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.