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Knowledge Organisation Systems. Doug Tudhope Hypermedia Research Unit University of Glamorgan. Schemas and Ontologies Workshop, NeSC, May 2003. Presentation. Introduce Knowledge Organisation Systems (KOS) Review some current DL work on KOS Research Issues

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    1. Knowledge Organisation Systems Doug Tudhope Hypermedia Research Unit University of Glamorgan Schemas and Ontologies Workshop, NeSC, May 2003

    2. Presentation • Introduce Knowledge Organisation Systems (KOS) • Review some current DL work on KOS • Research Issues • draw connections with Ontologies and Semantic Grid • General sources • NKOS: Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services • • SEMKOS FP6 IP Proposal •

    3. Taxonomy of Knowledge Organisation Systems • Term Lists • Authority Files, Glossaries, Gazetteers, Dictionaries • Classification and Categorization • Subject Headings • Classification Schemes and Taxonomies • eg DDC, scientific taxonomies • Relationship Schemes • Thesauri • Semantic Networks • (Ontologies) Hodg00,

    4. KOS ctd. • Thesauri • 3 Standard Relationships between concepts • Equivalence, Hierarchical, Associative • Domain (lead-in) vocabulary • Concept definitions and warrant (Scope Notes) • Ontologies • Higher level conceptualisation • formal definition of relationships • inference rules and definition of roles • KOS an element of ontologies and schemas Jaco03, Ontologies and the Semantic Web,. ASIST Bulletin, April/May 2003, Special Issue on Semantic Web

    5. KOS Legacy • Large (multilingual) vocabularies, indexed multimedia (and print) collections, scientific taxonomy initiatives • Product of peer review and follow standards • Network of practice, training and mechanisms for evolution However • Cannot currently be utilised to full potential • Designed for human inspection, semantic structure not explicitly represented • May be inconsistently evolved from various sources • Opportunity to formalise / enrich • exploiting semantic web technologies

    6. International Thesaurus Standards • Ongoing initiatives to revise thesaurus standards • ANSI/NISO Z39.19 (monolingual) • IFLA (multilingual) • BS 5723 and BS 6723 (both) - BSI public draft soon Extended scope, comparisons, interoperability • Various proposals to extend current relationships by specialisation, enriching standards but maintaining compatibility (eg Tudh01)

    7. Representation of KOS in RDF/XML • Various RDF/XML KOS-based projects Eg • Voc-ML XML Schema • RDF Thesaurus Interchange Format Limber Project - ELSST multilingual thesaurus • DESIRE II - RDF Thesaurus Specification

    8. NKOS Registry - draft proposal for KOS-level metadata Follows Dublin Core, data elements include: KOS - Title, Creator, Publisher, Date, Type, Format, Identifier, Language KOS - Subject, Description, Application, Rights Need for for more definition of purpose and usage? - the ‘point of view’ KOS - Relation (URI etc) KOS - Entity Types, Info Given, Relationships Relationships defined via a standard Namespace? Uniquely identify both the KOS and relationships within the KOS.

    9. Cross - mapping/browsing/searching KOS • Cross Mapping and semi-automatic KOS correlation • Related KOS versioning and update tools eg obsoletion, sibling addition, change of meaning • CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model Cultural heritage metadata framework (ISO/CD 21127) • Renardus - common classification/browsing structure and cross-browsing service

    10. Research issues • KOS services for DL and Semantic Grid • Facet analysis and foundational concepts - complementary approaches? • Whole lifecycle considerations

    11. KOS integration into DL servicesLinda Hill Research Agenda for ASIST SigCR Workshop • General KOS service protocol from which protocols for specific types of KOS can be derived • Robust linking model in which DL entities (collections, objects, and services) can refer to KOS entities (concepts, labels, and relationships) • Visualization tools that fully use and display the rich semantics embedded in KOS => move towards a model of search service ‘flow’? - how semantic search services combine

    12. Standard protocols for distributed access ADL Thesaurus Protocol (and Gazetteer Protocol) • lightweight, stateless, based on XML, HTTP Services include: • download -> list of all terms • query -> list of matching terms (equals/contains/fuzzy etc matches) • get-broader(starting-term, max-levels, format) -> hierarchy • format: "term", "term-description", or "extended" • get-narrower([starting-term,] max-levels, format) -> hierarchy • see also • Zthes Z39.50 protocol -

    13. Possible KOS-based Terminology Server within JISC Information Environment

    14. Enriching / Formalising KOS • Not only a matter of representation in RDF/XML - may be inconsistencies in logical structure eg combination of different hierarchical relationships --> deconstruction and ontological formalisation --> mutually exclusive concept structures suitable for automatic methods Facet analysis techniques relevant • Faceted (analytico-synthetic) approaches • based on fundamental, high-level categories • synthetic rather than enumerative • combine facets when indexing/querying

    15. Facet Analysis • UK Classification Research Group extended Ranganathan's set of fundamental categories • Entity, Part, Property, Material, Process, Operation, Product, Agent, Space, Time, ... • Mapped to facets for particular KOS • Basis of several scientific and industrial KOS • Useful for ‘cleaning’ KOS, multi-concept indexing and potential for precision in search However • Synthesis rules for facet combination lack formal expression

    16. Foundational concepts and facets • Foundational concepts and relations in ontologies similar fundamental categories to CRG (and CRM) but logically expressed and axiomatised can provide • Additional formalisms to logically express 'syntactical' combination of facets (eg Bech01) can assist • Automatic generalisation (expansion) of faceted multi-concept queries/descriptors

    17. Faceted multi-concept generalisation (Tudh02)

    18. Need to consider whole lifecycle • Importance of indexing for retrieval performance • Inter-relation of different stages of lifecycle (eg Bate02; Soer94) • Make indexing practice more explicit? • KOS Registry include description of indexing praxis? • Differences in granularity, exhaustivity, specificity in usage of different kinds of KOS • eg Classification Vs Thesaurus (indexing language) • Automatic KOS-based indexing/classification • DESIRE II, Scorpion Projects

    19. Need to consider whole lifecycle ctd. • Cost/benefit issues when enriching KOS? Different levels specialisation of standard relationships first step? Application dependent • User interface critical move beyond minimal assumptions of current web search engines on users, query structure, collections

    20. NKOS Workshops at ECDL and JCDLon related themes to this NeSC workshop • NKOS Workshop - Evolving Standards ECDL2003, Trondheim, 21 August 2003 cfp soon - email or see & • NKOS Workshop - Building a Meaningful Web JCDL03, Houston, Texas, May 31 see • Selected papers from the NKOS workshops will be considered for forthcoming special issues of journals JoDI and NRHM

    21. References Bates, MarciaThe Cascade of Interactions in the Digital Library Interface. Information Processing and Management 38 (2002):381-400. Bechofer S., Goble C. 2001. Thesaurus construction through knowledge representation. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 37, 25-45. CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model, Cross P., Brickley D., Koch. T. 2000. Conceptual relationships for encoding thesauri … Doerr M. 2001. Semantic Problems of Thesaurus Mapping. Journal of Digital Information, 1(8) - FACET Project. Global Taxonomy Initiative. Hill et al. 2002. Integration of Knowledge Organization Systems into Digital Library Architectures. ASIST SigCR - Hodge Gail, 2000. Systems of Knowledge Organization for Digital Libraries: Beyond Traditional Authority Files. CLIR Pub91. April 2000. Jacob Elin. 2003. Ontologies and the Semantic Web. ASIST Bulletin, April/May 2003, Special Issue on Semantic Web. Janée G., Ikeda S., Hill L. 2002. ADL Thesaurus Protocol v1.0. and Koch T., Ardoe A. 2000. DESIRE II Overview of Results and Demo.

    22. References ctd. Renardus Project - NKOS: Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services, NKOS Registry - draft proposal for KOS-level metadata SEMKOS FP6 IP Proposal, Soergel D. 1994 Indexing and retrieval performance: The logical evidence. Journal of American Society for Information Science, 45(8): 589-599. Taylor M. 2000. Zthes: a Z39.50 Profile for Thesaurus Navigation Version 0.4. Tudhope D., Alani H., Jones C. 2001. Augmenting thesaurus relationships: possibilities for retrieval. Journal of Digital Information, 1(8) - Tudhope D., Binding C., Blocks D., Cunliffe D. 2002. Compound Descriptors in Context: A Matching Function for Classifications and Thesauri. Proc. 2nd Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. ACM Press. 84-93 VocML. 2000. Vocabulary ML Project. and Wilson M., Matthews B. 2002. Migrating Thesauri to the Semantic Web.

    23. Contact Information Doug Tudhope School of Computing University of Glamorgan Pontypridd CF37 1DL Wales, UK