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Chemistry 204 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chemistry 204
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  1. Chemistry 204 Dr. Christine Yerkes 207 Chem Annex 333-6353 cyerkes@uiuc.edu Mon. - Fri. 1:00 - 2:00 or by appointment

  2. Required Text: Chemical Principles, 5th ed., Zumdahl electronic calculator with log functions Quiz sections begin: Wed, Jan. 18

  3. Grading Policy: On-line Homework: 85 pts. Quiz score: 150 pts. Hour Exams (3 x 150) 450 pts. Final Exam 300 pts. TA evaluation 15 pts. 1000 pts. No make-up quizzes or exams

  4. Grades 1000 points total 97-100% (970 - 1000) = A+ 93 - 96% (930 - 969) = A 90 - 92% (900 - 929) = A- etc., etc., etc.

  5. Quiz scores: weekly quizzes - material from previous week (lecture and Quiz section) keep 10 highest each quiz worth 15 points - TA evaluation - 15 points 165 points

  6. On-line Homework: 8 Homework assignments on LON-CAPA due dates on line credit for all problems completed before deadline 85 points

  7. LON-CAPA http:// www. chem.uiuc.edu Chem 204 user name : net i.d. password : Active Directory (AD) password CITES homepage

  8. Transition metals and coordination chemistry Alfred Werner CoCl3. 6 NH3 100% CoCl3. 5 NH3 66% + AgNO3 no reaction with NH3 AgCl (s) + HCl 33% CoCl3. 4 NH3 0% CoCl3. 3 NH3 [Co(NH3)6] Cl3 [Co(NH3)5Cl] Cl2 Co has 6 ligands [Co(NH3)4Cl2] Cl [Co(NH3)3Cl3]

  9. [Co(NH3)4Cl2] Cl NH3 Cl Cl H3N NH3 H3N NH3 NH3 Transition metals and coordination chemistry [Co(NH3)6] Cl3 1 isomer 1 isomer [Co(NH3)5Cl] Cl2 [Co(NH3)4Cl2] Cl 2 isomers [Co(NH3)3Cl3] 2 isomers Co octahedral all positions equivalent

  10. Transition metals and coordination chemistry Lewis acid – Lewis base coordinate covalent bond e- pair donor lone pair e- on ligands metals empty orbitals e- pair acceptor 1. oxidation state 2. coordination number

  11. 4s1 4s1 Transition metals and coordination chemistry Lewis acid – Lewis base coordinate covalent bond e- pair donor lone pair e- on ligands metals empty orbitals e- pair acceptor 1. oxidation state Transition metals Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn 4s2 3d1 3d2 3d3 3d5 3d5 3d6 3d7 3d8 3d10 3d10 s electrons lost first first-row ions do not have s e- 3d6 Fe2+ Cu+

  12. Transition metals and coordination chemistry Lewis acid – Lewis base coordinate covalent bond e- pair donor lone pair e- on ligands metals empty orbitals e- pair acceptor 1. oxidation state 2. coordination number # lone pairs ligands

  13. .. .. O O C C O O - - .. .. .. .. .. .. M M H2C CH2 H2N NH2 .. .. ligands aqua H2O tridentate monodentate NH3 ammine diethylenetriamine (dien) CN- cyano polydentate (6) oxalate EDTA bidentate chelate ethylenediamine (en)

  14. Nomenclature p. 496 [Co(NH3)6] Cl3 hexaammine cobalt(III) chloride [Co(NH3)3Cl3] triammine trichloro cobalt(III) K2[CuCl4] potassium tetrachloro cuprate(II) [CoCl2(en)2]Cl dichloro bis(en) cobalt (III) chloride 1. cation anion 2. ligands (alphabetical) before metal, with prefixes 3. oxidation state of metal in (roman numerals)

  15. Co Co Co N N O O O O H3N H3N NH3 NH3 H3N H3N NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 Isomerism same formula different properties structural isomers different bonds coordination isomerism linkage isomerism [CoSO4(NH3)5]Br [CoBr(NH3)5]SO4 SO4 Br

  16. Co Co H3N H3N NH3 NH3 H3N H3N NH3 NH3 Isomerism same formula different properties stereoisomers different spatial arrangement geometric isomerism optical isomerism [Co(NH3)4Cl2] Cl trans- cis- Cl Cl Cl Cl

  17. Cl H2O NH3 Co Co Br NH3 NH3 optical isomerism differ biologically differ in “plane polarized light” Cl OH2 H3N Br H3N NH3 non-superimposable mirror images enantiomers chiral “hands” plane of symmetry

  18. chiral no plane of symmetry