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Early Chinese History. World History December10, 2012. China’s Geography. China is located on the continent of Asia, became one of the largest countries in the world It has a great variety of climates and terrains South China Wet and tropical climate with some rainforest coverage

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early chinese history

Early Chinese History

World History

December10, 2012

china s geography
China’s Geography
  • China is located on the continent of Asia, became one of the largest countries in the world
  • It has a great variety of climates and terrains
    • South China
      • Wet and tropical climate with some rainforest coverage
    • Northwest China
      • Covered in desert land
    • Northeast China
      • Arctic climate (close to Russia) in the winter
    • West China
      • Himalayas borders China in the west
  • China’s Rivers
    • Yellow River
    • Yangzi River
china s first peoples
China’s First Peoples
  • First people arrived around 50,000 BC
    • About the same time the first people settled in Europe
      • These people were hunter/gatherers living in caves
  • Between 4,000-3,000BC, the people of China began farming rice and keeping animals
  • People settled in miniature cities along the Yellow River in northern China
    • They began living in small farming villages
    • At this time people in China began to use silk to make clothes
  • Shortly after, the early people settled into a unified kingdom
    • Under a dynasty
      • Dynasty = a family or group of rulers
xia dynasty
Xia Dynasty
  • The first dynasty of China
    • 2070-1600 BCE
  • Established by legendary Yu the Great
    • He was able to unite approximately 13.5 million people
    • Spent 13 years stopping the great flood and brought irrigation to the Yellow River Valley
  • They had many accomplishments for an early civilization
    • Irrigated the Yellow River
    • Had a calendar
    • Created a wheeled vehicle
  • The last king, Jie, was overthrown by the people, and the Shang dynasty was founded
shang dynasty
Shang Dynasty
  • United the Yellow River Valley
    • 1600-1046 BCE
  • Archeological sites at Anyang – the capital city – have uncovered eleven major royal tombs and the palaces
    • The amount of bronze, jade, stone, bone, and ceramic artifacts show an advanced civilization
  • The Shang dynasty rose to power under Qi
    • He helped control the Great Flood and was granted a place called Shang as a plot of land
  • The Shang dynasty united people of the Yellow River Valley and defeated those who rose against them
  • The Dynasty ended when the last Shang king, Di Xin, was overthrown by Wu of Zhou
z hou dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
  • Ruled China from about 1027 – 221 BCE – the longest dynasty in Chinese history
  • The Zhou dynasty appointed “lords” to control certain plots of land and the people who lived there
    • This spread the power to many upper-class men
  • The Zhou dynasty has many advancements
    • Ox-drawn plows, iron, horseback riding, coins, chopsticks, and the crossbow
    • Roads, canals, major irrigation projects
    • The philosophies of Confucianism and Taoism emerged
  • Originated the “Mandate of Heaven”
    • An ancient Chinese philosophical concept that determines whether a Chinese ruler is able to rule
qin dynasty
Qin Dynasty
  • Lasted from 221 – 206 BCE
  • Saw China’s first emperor, Qin Shi Huang
    • He started out as king of the Chinese State of Qin, and became the first emperor of a unified China in 221 BCE at the age of 49
  • He is a pivotal figure in China’s history
    • Unified China
    • Passed a series of major economic and political reforms
    • Built and unified sections of the Great Wall of China
    • Famous city-sized mausoleum guarded by the life-sized Terracotta Army
    • Massive national road system
  • To ensure his political stability, he outlawed and burned many books and buried scholars who opposed him alive
  • After Qin Shi Huang’s death in 210 BCE, civil war broke out, ending the Qin Dynasty