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Post Civil War Years. Unit 6. The student will identify legal, political, and social dimension of Reconstruction. a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction.

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The student will identify legal political and social dimension of reconstruction l.jpg
The student will identify legal, political, and social dimension of Reconstruction.

  • a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction.

  • b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (e.g., Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau.

  • c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments.

  • d. Explain Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction.

  • e. Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction

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The student will describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction

  • a. Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business.

  • b. Describe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor.

  • c. Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies

  • d. Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life

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The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth

  • a. Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrants’ origins to southern and eastern Europe and the impact of this change on urban America.

  • b. Identify the American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers.

  • c. Describe the growth of the western population and its impact on Native Americans with reference to Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee.

  • d. Describe the 1894 Pullman strike as an example of industrial unrest.

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Presidential Reconstruction industrial growth

  • Lincoln introduced a plan for rebuilding rather than punishing the South.

  • Andrew Johnson became president; he was a southerner and former slave owner, so he was sympathetic to the South.

  • He followed his own plan for reconstruction similar to Lincoln’s plan


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Presidential Reconstruction industrial growth

  • Southerners who swore allegiance to the Union were pardoned. (Forgiven of any crimes against the U.S.)

  • Former Confederate States could hold constitutional conventions to set up state governments.

  • States had to void secession and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which ended slavery

  • Once the 13th Amendment was ratified, states could hold elections and be a part of the Union


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Presidential Reconstruction industrial growth

  • Johnson enacted his plan while Congress was out of session.

  • Southern States enacted Black Codes

  • Black Codes were laws that limited the rights of freed blacks so much that they basically kept them as slaves.

  • Congress came into session unhappy!


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Radical Reconstruction industrial growth

  • Congress did not believe Johnson’s approach did not to enough because it did not offer Blacks full citizenship

  • Congress felt they should be in control of Reconstruction

  • Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867; commonly known as Radical Reconstruction


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Radical Reconstruction industrial growth

  • The southern states were put under military rule.

  • States had to hold new constitutional conventions

  • Southerners who supported the confederacy were not allowed to vote (temporarily)

  • Had to guarantee the right to vote to African Americans

  • Had to ratify the 14th Amendment, which made African Americans citizens


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Civil War Amendments industrial growth

  • 13th Amendment – abolished slavery in the United States

  • 14th Amendment – defined a citizen; guaranteed that no person would be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process

  • 15th Amendment – no citizen can be denied the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude


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Johnson’s Impeachment industrial growth

  • Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act – to prohibit President from firing government officials

  • Johnson fired the Secretary of War because he disagreed with him over reconstruction.

  • Congress accused Johnson of violating the law and voted to impeach him


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Johnson’s Impeachment industrial growth

  • The Senate failed to convict Johnson by one vote

  • This would have set a dangerous precedent for Congress to impeach a president over political differences.


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Farming and the Freedman’s Bureau industrial growth

  • Former slaves turned to sharecropping in order to survive.

  • Sharecropping – a family farmed a portion of a white landowners property in return for housing and a share of the crop.

  • Sharecroppers who worked for an honest landowner advanced to tenant farming.

  • Tenant Farming- farmer paid rent to farm the land and kept the profits from his crop.


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Farming and the Freedman’s Bureau industrial growth

  • Both the tenant farmers and sharecroppers were at the mercy of the landowner.

  • Both systems were designed to keep African Americans working white-owned land.

  • In an effort to help the freed slaves, Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau


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Freedman’s Bureau industrial growth

  • The first federal relief agency in U.S. history.

  • Provided clothes, medical attention, food, education, and in some cases land.

  • It ended in 1869, but it did help many slaves transition to freedom throughout the south.


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Education and the Church industrial growth

  • The desire for freedom and the need for community support led to the rise of African American Churches.

  • Churches became the center of African American social and political life.

  • African American ministers came to be seen not only as spiritual shepherds but as political/ social leaders as well


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Morehouse College industrial growth

  • 1867, group formed a school to train African American men to be ministers and teachers.

  • Eventually became the Atlanta Baptist Seminary and later Atlanta Baptist College

  • 1913 the name was changed to Morehouse College; one of the most prestigious colleges in the nation

  • Known as the “Black Harvard”


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White Resistance industrial growth

  • Under Radical Reconstruction, black codes lost much of their power.

  • Whites resisted giving blacks equal rights and some resorted to violence

  • Ku Klux Klan was the most notorious group.

  • Klan practiced lynchings and other acts of violence

  • Some of their goals have changed but the Klan still exists today


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White Resistance industrial growth

  • Southerners grew bitter towards the Union and those who profited from Reconstruction

  • Carpetbaggers were seen as people taking advantage of southern suffering to make money.

  • They carried bags made of carpet like material – thus the name.

  • Scalawags were southerners who supported reconstruction – this group was targeted for persecution by groups like the KKK


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The End of Reconstruction industrial growth

  • Reconstruction ended in 1877 with the election of Rutherford B. Hayes.

  • African American lost the small gains they had made during reconstruction.

  • Southern States passed “Jim Crow” laws that enforced segregation

  • Many states by passed the 15th amendment by using literacy tests and poll taxes as a condition to vote


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The End of Reconstruction industrial growth

  • To allow poor, uneducated whites to vote, states instituted “grandfather clauses”

  • These clauses exempted citizens from literacy tests and poll taxes if their ancestors had voted in previous elections or had served in the Confederate army or navy

  • This eliminated African Americans in politics and maintained a ‘solid south’ for the Democrats for more than a century


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Industrial Growth industrial growth

Post Civil War

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Railroads and the West industrial growth

  • Railroads played a major role in the industrial growth and expansion after the Civil War.

  • Railroads made life out west possible by allowing farmers and ranchers access to eastern markets and resources.

  • Railroads also made it easier for people too move west and populate territories.


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Transcontinental Railroad industrial growth

  • Congress coordinated an effort to build a transcontinental railroad.

  • The Union Pacific (an eastern company) and the Central Pacific (a western company) joined their tracks in Utah in 1869 with a gold spike.

  • The completion of the transcontinental railroad would not have been possible without thousands of Irish and Chinese immigrants.

  • Immigrants were often victims of racism and abuse because of their Asian features, cultural differences, and distinct dress.

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Railroads and Big Business industrial growth

  • Railroads also contributed to the rise of the steel industry and big business.

  • 1850s, Henry Bessemer developed a new method for making steel known as the Bessemer process.

  • Manufacturers could make steel much cheaper than before, so steel became more affordable.

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Railroads and Big Business industrial growth

  • Steel becomes an integral part of the nation’s economy

  • Buildings could not be built taller – skyscrapers

  • Railroads became a practical and economical way to ship sizeable products over land.

  • Resources and finished goods could be shipped to locations anywhere there was railroads.

  • Shipping goods and resources in a timely manner became a major component of big business. (TIME ZONES)

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Giants of Big Business industrial growth

  • Some people became rich in developing the railroad industry. Because some did so in a crooked manner, they became known as the “robber barons”

  • Robber barons came to be indentified with wealthy entrepreneurs in other industries.

  • 1869, Cornelius Vanderbilt extended his New York Central railroad to reach Chicago; people were able to travel non-stop

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Giants of Big Business industrial growth

  • Andrew Carnegie founded U.S. Steel and sold it to J.P. Morgan for $500 million.

  • This made Carnegie the richest man in the world at the time.

  • Carnegie becomes well known for his charitable work and philanthropic endeavors.

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Giants of Big Business industrial growth

  • This most important name associated with big business is John D. Rockefeller.

  • He founded Standard Oil Company, which was the nations’ first trust

  • Trust unite different companies into one system.

  • Trust exists to destroy competition and create monopolies (a market in which there is only one supplier of a product)

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John D. Rockefeller industrial growth

  • He was able to dictate prices, eliminate competition and control the U.S. oil industry.

  • He used vertical integration: a business strategy in which one corporation owns not only the company that produces the finished product, but also the companies that provide the materials needed for production.

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Thomas Edison industrial growth

  • 19th Century saw many inventions introduced to American.

  • Thomas Edison was the most impactful inventor of the time.

  • 1877, he invented the phonograph, later the motion picture camera.

  • His most important was the electric light bulb.


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Thomas Edison industrial growth

  • Before Electric light bulbs, people were limited to working only daylight hours or by dim candle/oil lamp light

  • People could do more work after dark in factories, offices, and homes.

  • He also came up with the idea of central power companies to provide electrical power to customers

  • His company, founded in 1882, Con-Edison still supplies electricity to New York City

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Western Growth industrial growth

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Reasons for Moving West industrial growth

  • In the years leading up to and following the Civil War, settlers moved west, causing a population boom.

  • Some went west for religious reasons to spread the news of Jesus Christ to the Indians.

  • The Mormons moved west to escape Religious persecution and founded Utah

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Reasons for Moving West industrial growth

  • Gold Rush of 1849 led to early statehood for California

  • Available land also drew people west

  • Congress opened up more land for settlement in 1889

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Oklahoma Land Rush industrial growth

  • 50,000 people gathered at the Oklahoma border waiting for a gun shot to announce the opening.

  • Featured people on horseback, bicycles, in wagons, and on foot all surging forward to stake their claim

  • Some jumped the gun to get ahead and get there “sooner”

  • Hence Oklahoma is nicknamed the Sooner state.

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Farming, Ranching, and Mining industrial growth

  • Settlers in the west had to adapt to terrain different from the East.

  • Lacking wood, settlers had to build and live in sod houses; sod was very strong and durable.

  • Many technological advances made western farming possible;

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Technological Advances industrial growth

  • John Deere designed the first steel plow that enabled farmers to plant crops in the prairie sod.

  • Wind Mills allowed settlers to pump water from 100 feet deep wells.

  • Barbed wire allowed ranchers to fence in their land for cattle cheaply.

  • Railroads created a way for farmers to import needed equipment and export their products to other parts of the nation.

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Cattle Ranching industrial growth

  • Texas settlers learned ranching techniques from the Mexicans who lived there; herding and driving cattle to market.

  • Texans also copied their dress and culture- cowboy hats and chaps

  • Rise of cattle ranching contributed to the slaughter of the buffalo that competed for grazing areas.

  • “Cowtowns” popped up along the rail lines for shipping cattle back east; Cowboys became legendary

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Mining Industry industrial growth

  • Mining became important as discoveries of gold like those in California meant people could attempt to make a fortune.

  • Mining camps and towns had a reputation of being wild and full of vice (gambling, drinking, prostitution)

  • Big corporations moved in and the number of independent miners declined over time.

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Impact on industrial growthNative Americans

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Buffalo and Reservations industrial growth

  • As more settlers moved west, Native Americans continued to feel the impact.

  • They used the buffalo for food, clothing, and shelter.

  • Settlers and trappers killed great numbers of buffalo, and by 1889 only 1,000 were left on the Continent.

  • Plains Indians could no longer continue their way of life.

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Buffalo and Reservations industrial growth

  • Many Native Americans were forced to relocate to reservations.

  • Reservations are parcels of land set aside by the federal government for Native Americans.

  • They would be forcibly removed every time gold was discovered or whites wanted the land.

  • They became resentful and wars broke out which killed large numbers of Native Americans.

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Violent Confrontations industrial growth

  • 1861, Cheyenne warriors angry that the US had forced them off their land launched several raids on camps and local towns.

  • US forces surprised 500 Cheyenne at Sand Creek killing 270 Indians, mostly women and children.

  • Many were outraged and under the leadership of Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, the Sioux rose up

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Battle of Little Bighorn industrial growth

  • In 1876, General George Custer attempted to surprise and defeat the Sioux at the Battle of Little Bighorn.

  • Custer underestimated the size of the enemy’s forces.

  • The Sioux quickly surrounded the U.S. troops, killing Custer and more than 200 of his men.

  • This became known as “Custer’s Last Stand”

  • By 1877, both the Sioux and Cheyenne had surrendered and were relocated to reservations.

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Wounded Knee industrial growth

  • The last notable armed conflict between U.S. Troops and Native Americans occurred in 1890 at Wounded Knee, S.D..

  • The Sioux had developed a ritual called the Ghost Dance that they believed would bring back the buffalo, return the Natives to their land, and banish the white man from the earth.

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Wounded Knee industrial growth

  • U.S. forces believed that Sitting Bull was using the Ghost Dance to incite an uprising, so they sent in the army to arrest him.

  • A gunfight broke out killing 14 including Sitting Bull

  • They eventually killed 150 unarmed Native American men, women, and children.

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Urban Growth industrial growthand Immigration

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Urban Growth industrial growth

  • From the end of the Civil war to the turn of the 20th century, the size of U.S. cities increased rapidly.

  • When cities increase in size it is called urban growth.

  • Western cities grew from nothing as railroads took hold.

  • Eastern cities grew as a result of industrialization and the jobs it created.

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Immigration industrial growth

  • The late 19th century also saw a dramatic increase in immigration to the U.S.

  • In the east, most new arrivals came from Europe, while on the west coast, many came from China.

  • Industrialization in the east and building railroads in the west caused the influx of many immigrants.

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Ellis Island industrial growth

  • To handle the large number of immigrants coming to American, the government opened Ellis Island.

  • A tiny island near the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor.

  • All the nationalities that came created the American “melting pot”

  • Most kept their traditional ways and society experienced a cultural pluralism – (presence of many different cultures within one society)

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Problems with Immigration industrial growth

  • Immigration provide much needed labor for the nation’s factories.

  • Many US citizens felt that they took away jobs from Americans.

  • They tended to live in their own neighborhoods or ethnic ghettos where they kept their culture and language.

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Problems with Immigration industrial growth

  • Religious differences were also a source of tension – most Americans were protestant while immigrants were Catholic

  • Before the Civil war, immigrants came from Western Europe – people with similar characteristics – White and protestant

  • After the Civil War- immigrants came from Eastern and southern Europe – places like Poland, Italy and Russia

  • There were huge ethnic differences which lead to an increase in Nativism

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Nativism industrial growth

  • As feelings of Nativism (opposing immigration) grew, anti-immigrant groups began to form.

  • The Government passed anti-immigrant legislation restricting immigration

  • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited Chinese immigrants from legally coming to the U.S and was not repealed until 1943.

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Living and Working Conditions industrial growth

  • Industrialization produced many problems in the cities.

  • The entire family; men, women, and children tended to work in the factories 12 hours per day to make ends meet.

  • Child labor was common, children as young as five,

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Living and Working Conditions industrial growth

  • Working Conditions were often difficult; the work was monotonous, long hours for low pay and often dangerous.

  • Sweatshops were makeshift factories set up by private contractors to help main factory meet production goals.

  • Sweatshops were poorly lit, poorly ventilated, and unsafe

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Living and Working Conditions industrial growth

  • Living conditions were often hard as well.

  • Urban slums (poor, inner-city neighborhoods) consisting of tenements.

  • Tenements were overcrowded apartments that housed several families of immigrants

  • Overcrowded, these slums often had open sewers that attracted rats and other disease-spreading pests

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The Rise of Labor Unions industrial growth

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Samuel Gompers and the AFL industrial growth

  • Out of the challenging working and living conditions that faced industrial workers arose labor unions.

  • Unions are organizations formed to protect the interests of its members.

  • The most influential of the era was the American Federation of Labor (AFL) led by Samuel Gompers

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American Federation of Labor industrial growth

  • The AFL used the economic pressures of strikes (refusal of employees to work until employers meet certain demands) and boycotts (refusal to buy or pay for certain products of services)

  • The AFL also believed in collective bargaining.

  • Collective bargaining is a process through which employees negotiate as a group.

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American Federation of Labor industrial growth

  • To increase their ability to negotiate with business owners, the AFL pressed for closed shop workplaces in which employers could only hire union members.

  • Closed shops forced employers to deal with the union because they could not look elsewhere for workers.

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Strikes and Confrontations industrial growth

  • Employers hated the unions and often took measures against them.

  • They threatened to fire employees who joined unions or forced them to sign contracts agreeing not to join such groups.

  • Courts would issue injunctions declaring strikes illegal; even the president would send in troops to stop a strike.

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Pullman Strike industrial growth

  • The most drastic strike of the era was the Pullman strike in 1894.

  • The Pullman car company had laid off workers and the union protested to George Pullman the owner. He responded by firing the union representatives.

  • The union went of strike in protest, so Pullman closed the plant instead of negotiating.

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Pullman Strike industrial growth

  • Led by Eugene Debs, the American Railway Union called for a boycott of Pullman Cars nationwide.

  • 120,000 workers rallied to the strike, because the strike affected the deliver of the U.S. mail, the federal government issued an injunction and the President sent in troops to make sure it was enforced.

  • Within days, the strike was over and set a precedent of Employers using the court to stop strikes.