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Data Communication & Networking in Manufacturing System

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### Data Communication & Networking in Manufacturing System

Nanang Ali Sutisna

Master Eng. in Computer Integrated Manufacture

Senior PLM Consultant, IBM Indonesia (Retired)

Senior Manager, Product Development

Multistrada Arah Sarana

The Primary Components Of A Computer

- Input devices.
- Central Processing Unit (containing the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit).
- Memory.
- Output devices.
- Storage devices.

Central processing unit

- A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes just called processor, is a description of a class of logic machines that can execute computer programs.
- This broad definition can easily be applied to many early computers that existed long before the term "CPU" ever came into widespread usage. However, the term itself and its initialism have been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s (Weik 1961).
- The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation has remained much the same.

Central processing unit

- Early CPUs were custom-designed as a part of a larger, usually one-of-a-kind, computer. However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-produced processors that are suited for one or many purposes.
- This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistormainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit (IC).
- The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured in very small spaces (on the order of millimeters). Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of these digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to cell phones to children's toys.

Early Computers

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), was the first general-purpose electronic computer. ENIAC was designed and built to calculate artilleryfiring tables for the U.S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory.

EDVAC, one of the first electronic stored program computers.

later packaged in small IC’s

- eventually came VLSI
- Very Large Scale Integration
- millions of transistors per chip

- first transistor made from materials including a paper clip and a razor blade

the integrated circuit (IC)

- invented separately by 2 people ~1958
- Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments
- Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor (1958-59)
- 1974
- Intel introduces the 8080 processor
- one of the first “single-chip” microprocessors

Microprocessor

- Processors were for a long period constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs containing the equivalent of a few to a few hundred transistors.
- The integration of the whole CPU onto a single VLSI chip therefore greatly reduced the cost of processing capacity.
- From their humble beginnings, continued increases in microprocessor capacity has rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessor as processing element in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and super computers.

Microprocessor

- Three projects arguably delivered a complete microprocessor at about the same time, namely Intel's 4004, the Texas Instruments (TI) TMS 1000, and Garrett AiResearch'sCentral Air Data Computer (CADC).

The 4004 with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right).

Architectures

- 8-bit designs
- 16-bit designs
- 32-bit designs
- 64-bit designs in personal computers
- Multicore designs
- RISC
- Special-purpose designs
- microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics processing units (GPU).

Architectures

- 65xx
- MOS Technology 6502
- Western Design Center 65xx
- ARM family
- AlteraNios, Nios II
- Atmel AVR architecture (purely microcontrollers)
- EISC
- RCA 1802 (aka RCA COSMAC, CDP1802)
- DEC Alpha
- Intel
- 4004, 4040
- 8080, 8085
- 8048, 8051
- iAPX 432
- i860, i960
- Itanium
- LatticeMico32
- M32R architecture
- MIPS architecture
- Motorola
- Motorola 6800
- Motorola 6809
- Motorola 68000 family, ColdFire
- MotoG4, G5

Architectures

- NSC 320xx
- OpenCoresOpenRISC architecture
- PA-RISC family
- National Semiconductor SC/MP ("scamp")
- Signetics 2650
- SPARC
- SuperH family
- TransmetaCrusoe, Efficeon (VLIW architectures, IA-32 32-bit Intel x86emulator)
- INMOS Transputer
- x86 architecture
- Intel 8086, 8088, 80186, 80188 (16-bit real mode-only x86 architecture)
- Intel 80286 (16-bit real mode and protected mode x86 architecture)
- IA-32 32-bit x86 architecture
- x86-64 64-bit x86 architecture
- and others

Microprocessor System

- A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC).
- The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using BCD arithmetics on 4-bit words.
- Other embedded uses of 4 and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc, followed rather quickly.
- Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general purpose microcomputers in the mid-1970s.

Microprocessor

- Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6.75 mm) in its packaging

Microprocessor System

Microprocessor chips are the basic building blocks for nearly all of the "intelligent" control systems found in a modern manufacturing organization. Smaller systems have a single microprocessor chip acting as the entire Central Processing

Unit (CPU). This is typical of Personal Computers, Workstations and small industrial controllers. Larger computer-based systems use microprocessors as building blocks for entire boards, which may themselves act as CPUs or closed loop controllers.

Regardless of the architecture of intelligent systems, the principles by which communication occurs between a microprocessor chip and other associated semiconductor devices are essentially the same. We shall examine communications

in a simple, single processor system to illustrate the key features involved.

Microprocessor System

- The microprocessor chip can be envisaged as a machine that generates a number of internal voltage levels which together define the internal "state" of that machine. The internal state of the microprocessor changes at a rate determined by an external clock chip. The internal "state" voltage levels are decoded (by appropriate
- circuits) in order to:
- • move data into or out of the microprocessor
- • manipulate data within the microprocessor (add, subtract, etc.)
- • move data from one internal storage location (register) to another.
- Each cycle (tick) of the clock causes the microprocessor to jump from one internal state to another. The "next state" of the microprocessor is determined by a logical combination of its current internal state, together with the condition of all the various input lines connected to it. This

Microprocessor System

The architecture of semiconductor devices such as microprocessors, memory chips, etc., is based upon the use of only two voltages - low (false / off) or high (true /on). This is referred to as a "binary" or "base 2" system.

Typically a voltage in the order of five volts is treated as high, and voltages of approximately zero are treated as low. The actual values depend upon the semiconductor technology used to fabricate a particular set of chips.

At any one point within a microprocessor chip, only the numbers 0 or 1 can be represented electronically at any instant in time. Similarly, the microprocessor's links to its outside world, the conducting, bus lines can also only have either a high or low

voltage at any instant. Multiple conductors are therefore needed on a bus in order for the microprocessor to handle realistic numbers. A system with "n" conductors can therefore directly handle numbers ranging from:

0 to (2n - 1)

Microprocessor System

From Figure 1.3

at any time "T", we have the following, "binary" number:

1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1

At any instant in time (neglecting transition periods), each point in a digital

circuit represents one binary digit. This is abbreviated to the word "bit".

Number Systems: Decimal

The decimal (or base 10) number system, the following is a count sequence:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

.

.

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109

the decimal number 721 actually represents the following:

(7 x 102) + (2 x 101) + (1 x 100)

Number Systems: Octal

The “Octal" number system arises regularly. A count sequence in base 8 takes on the following form:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

The octal number 721 actually represents the following:

(7 x 82) + (2 x 81) + (1 x 80)

which is equal to decimal 465 and not decimal 721.

When working with a range of different number systems, it is common practice to subscript numbers with the base of the number system involved. For example, we can validly write the following expression:

7218 = 46510

Number Systems: Hexadecimal

The “Hexadecimal” number system or base 16.

Since we do not have enough of the ordinary numerals (0..9) to represent 16 different numbers with a single symbol, we "borrow" the first six letters of the alphabet (A..F). A count sequence in base 16 then takes on the following form:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F

.

.

F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 10A 10B 10C 10D 10E 10F

To similarly convert the hexadecimal number 721 to decimal:

72116 = (7 x 162) + (2 x 161) + (1 x 160) = 182510

Number Systems: Binary

Finally we move on to the number system most closely related to the architecture of computer systems themselves, the binary number system, in which we can only count from 0 to 1 before performing a "shift" operation. The following is a base 2 count sequence:

0 1

10 11

100 101 110 111

1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

If we look again at Figure 1.3, we can now see that the number represented by the voltage waveforms at time "T" is:

101111012 =

(1x27) + (0x26) + (1x25) + (1x24) + (1x23) + (1x22) + (0x21) + (1x20)

= 18910

Number Systems: BCD

In order to establish an analogous, direct relationship between binary and decimal, another number representation is also in use. This is referred to as the Binary Coded Decimal or BCD system.

In the BCD system, each decimal digit is represented in binary by four bits.

For example, the BCD equivalent of the number 721 is given by:

0111 0010 0001

Representation of Alpha Numeric

Two specifications for the bit patterns representing alpha-numeric characters are in common use. These are the 7 bit ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) and the 8 bit EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) systems.

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