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Rocks and Minerals

Rocks and Minerals

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Rocks and Minerals

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  1. Rocks and Minerals 8th Grade Earth Science Unit 2 Topics: Rocks, Minerals, Rock Cycle

  2. Enduring Understanding • An object’s characteristics and behavior are determined by its individual particles and their arrangement. • A cycle is a repetitive and predictable relationship. • Structures that change over time do so as a result of some outside influence.

  3. Essential Questions • How can we identify and classify objects in the world around us? • What is the Earth made of? • How do rocks and minerals change? • How have changes shaped the world around us?

  4. What Students Should Know • Rocks are composed of minerals. • Minerals are identified on the basis of physical and chemical properties. • Rocks are classified on the basis of how they are formed. • Rock formation and the rock cycle. • Three classifications of rocks • Igneous • Sedimentary • Metamorphic • Rocks are classified on their physical and chemical properties.

  5. What Students Should Be Able to Do • Use identification tests and flow charts to identify mineral samples. • Use identification tests to identify rock samples and its origin of formation. • Use charts and diagrams of the rock cycle to determine the formation of a specific rock type. • Determine density of regular and irregular shaped objects.

  6. Unit Project • Mighty Minerals or Rock Story • Mighty Minerals • Research a mineral • Make a cartoon including facts on the mineral • Rock Story • Research a rock • Tell a story involving the rock cycle

  7. Minerals • What do you know about minerals? • Complete the Before You Read about Minerals in your note packet. • Raise your hand if you agree with the statement, leave it down if you don’t. • Be prepared to defend your response.

  8. Before you Read To Agree or To Disagree Minerals • Atoms in a mineral are arranged in an orderly pattern. • Minerals are made in the lab from natural materials. • Diamonds are so hard they cannot be broken. • Minerals are a source of metals and other useful elements.

  9. Journaling aboutMinerals • Write two questions that you would ask a gemologist – someone who studies gems and gemstones – about the minerals that he or she works with. • Who would like to share?

  10. Section 1Minerals • Skim the headings of section 1. • Examine the illustrations of section 1. • Write three questions that come to mind. • Share time

  11. Vocabulary Section 1Minerals • Define the following words using your text book. • Atoms • Mineral • Crystal • Magma • Silicate • Use a dictionary to define • Occur

  12. What is a mineral? Section 1Minerals

  13. What is a mineral? Section 1Minerals • Crystals – • solid with atoms arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern

  14. The Structure of Minerals – Crystals Section 1Minerals Tetragonal Hexagonal Cubic Orthorhombic Monoclinic Tri clinic

  15. The Structure of Minerals – Magma Section 1Minerals slowly • When magma cools _________________ -- large crystals are formed. • When magma cools _________________ -- small crystals are formed. quickly

  16. The Structure of Minerals – Solution Section 1Minerals

  17. Mineral Compositions and Groups Section 1Minerals Oxygen Silicon

  18. Mineral Compositions and Groups Section 1Minerals • Distinguish between a carbonate and a silicate. • Identify two carbonates and two silicates. • Carbonate = have carbon and oxygen • Dolomite • Calcite • Silicates = have silicon and oxygen • Feldspar • Quartz

  19. Mineral Compositions and Groups Section 1Minerals

  20. Discussion Question Section 1Minerals • What processes can cause crystals to form?

  21. Reinforcement Section 1Minerals • Using the table provided to you: • Which minerals listed below do NOT belong to the silicate family? • Plagioclase • Amphibole • Gypsum • Mica • Pyroxene • Calcite • Quartz • Name: _____________________________________ • Symbol: ____________________________________ Yes Yes No: sulfate Yes Yes No: carbonate Yes Silicon Oxygen Si O

  22. Reinforcement Section 1Minerals Carbonates • Dolomite: ____________________________________ • A mineral that contains the CO3 group: _________ • Sulfates are named for ________________________ • An example of an oxide is _____________________ • Which of the rock-forming groups makes up the largest group of minerals in Earth’s crust? ______ • Gypsum: _____________________________________ • Hematite contains: ___________________________ • Halite belongs to _____________________________ Calcite Sulfur Hematite Silicates Sulfates Iron Halides

  23. Quiz Section 1Minerals • At this time you will take a short quiz on minerals. • No notes!!! • Good luck!!

  24. Quiz Section 1Minerals According to the chart, which mineral contains the greatest variety of elements? Calcite Feldspar C. Olivine D. Quartz

  25. Quiz Section 1Minerals About 92% of the rock-forming mineral in Earth’s crust are silicates. Silicates are compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. According to this definition, which of these is not a silicate? Calcite Feldspar C. Olivine D. Mica

  26. Quiz Section 1Minerals According to the chart, which element is found only in calcite? Al C C. Fe D. Na

  27. Quiz Section 1Minerals A reasonable hypothesis based on the data is that the two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust are ________. C and O Ca and Si C. Al and O D. Si and O

  28. Section 1Minerals Critique the statement: “Coal is an essential mineral for society.”

  29. Section 1Minerals What processes can cause crystals to form?

  30. Section 2Mineral Identification • Predict three things that you expect to learn based on the headings in section 2. • How minerals vary in appearance • How to measure the hardness of minerals • What “streak” means when applied to a mineral

  31. Section 2Mineral Identification Vocabulary • Physical Property • Hardness • Luster • Streak • Cleavage • Fracture • Obvious

  32. Section 2Mineral Identification Physical Properties • Summarize why attempting to identify a mineral by its color alone may sometimes be deceiving.

  33. Your fingernail can scratch the minerals ___________ and _________. A streak plate is softer than the minerals ____________, ____________, and _______________. talc Section 2Mineral Identification Physical Properties gypsum topaz corundum diamond Hardness Mohs Scale Common Objects 1 Talc (softest) Fingernail 2 Gypsum Piece of copper 3 Calcite 4 Fluorite Iron nail 5 Glass Apatite 6 Steel file Feldspar 7 Quartz Streak plate 8 Topaz 9 Corundum 10 Diamond (hardest)

  34. Section 2Mineral Identification Physical Properties • Concept Map

  35. Section 2Mineral Identification • Luster • The way a mineral reflects light • Metallic luster • Non-metallic luster • Dull • Pearly • Silky • Glassy

  36. Section 2Mineral Identification • Streak • Color produced when a mineral is scratched on an unglazed, white tile

  37. Section 2Mineral Identification • Cleavage • Splitting pieces with smooth, regular surfaces that reflect light

  38. Section 2Mineral Identification • Hardness • A test in which minerals scratch or are scratched by others

  39. Section 2Mineral Identification • Unique Properties • Properties that are unique to that mineral • Magnetism • Other properties

  40. Section 2Mineral Identification Physical Properties • Identify the unique properties of

  41. Section 2Mineral Identification Physical Properties • Connect It!! • Suppose you were given an assignment to scratch your name into a piece of glass on a special name plate. Identify which of the following minerals you could use. Which would work best? Support your choices with reasons and examples. • Diamond • Gypsum • Apatite • Quartz

  42. Section 2Mineral Identification Physical Properties • What are five properties that could be examined to identify a mineral? • Hardness • Luster • Specific gravity • Streak • Cleavage • Fracture

  43. Section 3Uses of Minerals Predict • Predict three things that might be discussed in Section 3. • Read the headings to help you make your predictions.

  44. Section 3Uses of Minerals Vocabulary • Metal • Gem • Ore • Accurate

  45. Section 3Uses of Minerals Gems • Summarize what distinguishes gems from common samples of minerals. • Gems are clearer, brighter, or more colorful than common minerals. Examples of industrial applications. Diamonds To produce a type of laser light In electronic timepieces

  46. Cullinan Diamond Section 3Uses of Minerals Gems

  47. Hope Diamond Section 3Uses of Minerals Gems

  48. Section 3Uses of Minerals Useful Elements in Minerals • Minerals can contain other useful elements • Elements must by refined, or purified from ores

  49. Section 3Uses of Minerals Useful Elements in Minerals • Minerals can contain other useful elements • Elements must by refined, or purified from ores

  50. Section 3Uses of Minerals Useful Elements in Minerals • Minerals can contain other useful elements • Elements must by refined, or purified from ores