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Bacillus cereus and How It Impacts You. Presented by Shermin Murji to Alberta Post-secondary educational cafeteria food handlers and processors. Learning Objectives. What is Baccillus cereus? What is it? What are the dangers? How does this bacteria affect you?

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Bacillus cereus and How It Impacts You


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    1. Bacillus cereus and How It Impacts You Presented by Shermin Murji to Alberta Post-secondary educational cafeteria food handlers and processors

    2. Learning Objectives • What is Baccillus cereus? • What is it? • What are the dangers? • How does this bacteria affect you? • How can I prevent an outbreak? • What should I do if I think there may be a case of Baccillus cereus ?

    3. What Is Bacillus cereus? • Gram positive bacteria that has large rods • Causes food poisoning when ingested • Targets people regardless of race, age, or gender • Is not communicable person to person (PHAC, 2001) Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Bad Bug Book – Bacillus cereus. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070492.htm Miliotis, M.D., & Bier, J.W. (Eds.) (2003). International Handbook of Foodborne Pathogens. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc. Public Health Agency of Canada. (2001). Bacillus cereus – Material Safety Data Sheets. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/msds13e-eng.php.

    4. What Are The Dangers? • Been recognized as a food poisoning organism since the 1950s • Ingestion can cause two types of illness • Diarrhea illness • Vomiting illness (FDA, 2009) • Not commonly reported, but true numbers unknown • Rarely causes death References: Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Bad Bug Book – Bacillus cereus. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070492.htm Gaulin, C., Viger, Y.B, & Fillion, L. (2002). At outbreak of Bacillus cereus implicating a part-time banquet caterer. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 93 (5), 353-355.

    5. Diarrhea Illness • Caused by a large molecular weight protein • Typically lasts 24 hours • Onset is 6 to 15 hours • Experience abdominal cramps and pain • Some common foods include milk, meats, vegetables, and fish References: Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Bad Bug Book – Bacillus cereus. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070492.htm

    6. Emetic (Vomiting) Illness • Caused by a low molecular weight, heat stable peptide • Typically lasts less than 24 hours • Onset is almost immediate at 30 minutes to 6 hours • Experience nausea and vomiting • Some associated foods include rice products, potato, pasta, cheese, and mixes (e.g. soup, sauces, pudding) References: Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Bad Bug Book – Bacillus cereus. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070492.htm

    7. 2 Historical Cases • 2 food poisoning cases as examples • 1993: A day care ordered food from a local Chinese restaurant and did not reheat the rice when it was served at lunch (hours after the arrival of the food). 14 people became ill: 12 children and two staff members. • 1997: A father and son became ill after making a pesto sauce at home. It was not cooked adequately and not refrigerated quickly enough. The son eventually died from food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus. References: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Bacillus cereus Food poisoning associated with fried rice at two child day care centers – Virginia, 1993. MMWR, 43 (10), 177-8. Mahler, H., Pasi, A., Kramer, J.M., Schulte, P., et al. (1997). Fulminant liver failure in association with the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 336 (16), 1142-1148.

    8. How Does This Impact Me? • If an outbreak occurs, your site can be closed down temporarily which impacts your • Reputation • Output • Ultimately: revenue • If you are shut down, there may be additional food inspection procedures that will be implemented (translates into added cost and time) • Best way to avoid this: PREVENTION References: Alberta Regulation. (2003). Public Health Act: Food and Food establishments regulation. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from http://www.dthr.ab.ca/resources/documents/foodestablishment/Food%20and%20Food%20Establishments%20Regulation.pdf

    9. How Can I Prevent An Outbreak? • Optimal growing conditions: 40° to 140° F (5° to 60°C) • Adequate cooking and refrigeration may be sufficient to reduce likelihood of bacteria growth • Ensure proper food handling and storage techniques • High standard of cleaning practices • Follow these practices at home and reinforce them with employees to take home as well • Wash your hands frequently Todar, K. (2008). Bacillus cereus Food Poisoning. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/B.cereus.html.

    10. What Should I Do If There Is An Outbreak? • In Alberta, call Health Link (1-866-408-LINK) • To determine if Bacillus cereus is present on site: • Diarrhea type: can be detected using a serological method • Vomiting type: can be detected by animal models or cell cultures References: Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Bad Bug Book – Bacillus cereus. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070492.htm

    11. Last Thoughts • Growth and outbreaks of Bacillus cereus is preventable: • Follow proper food handling techniques • Allow for sufficient cooking times • Refrigerate immediately • Reheat leftovers to over 140°F/60°C • Wash hands frequently • Call Health Link in Alberta if you have any concerns

    12. References • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Bacillus cereus Food poisoning associated with fried rice at two child day care centers – Virginia, 1993. MMWR, 43 (10), 177-8. • Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Bad Bug Book – Bacillus cereus. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070492.htm • Gaulin, C., Viger, Y.B, & Fillion, L. (2002). At outbreak of Bacillus cereus implicating a part-time banquet caterer. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 93 (5), 353-355. • Mahler, H., Pasi, A., Kramer, J.M., Schulte, P., et al. (1997). Fulminant liver failure in association with the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 336 (16), 1142-1148. • Miliotis, M.D., & Bier, J.W. (Eds.) (2003). International Handbook of Foodborne Pathogens. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc. • Public Health Agency of Canada. (2001). Bacillus cereus – Material Safety Data Sheets. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/msds13e-eng.php. • Rajkovic, A., Uyttendaele, M., Vermeulen, A., Andjelkovoc, M., Fitz-James, I., Veld, P., et al. (2008). Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, cereulide. The Society for Applied Microbiology, Letters in Applied Microbiology, 46 (5), 536-541.. • Todar, K. (2008). Bacillus cereus Food Poisoning. Retrieved June 11, 2009 from http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/B.cereus.html.

    13. For More Info Visit: • Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/fs-sa/index-eng.php • Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/index-eng.php • Canadian Food Inspection Agency http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/toce.shtml

    14. For More Info Visit: • MicrobiologyBytes http://www.microbiologybytes.com/video/Bcereus.html • Food-info http://www.food-info.net/uk/bact/bacer.htm • Bacteriology at University of Wisconsin-Madison http://bioinfo.bact.wisc.edu/themicrobialworld/B.cereus.html

    15. For More Info Books: Fratamic, P.M., Bhunia, A.K., & Smith, J.L. (Eds.) (2005). Foodborne Pathogens: Micorbiology and Molecular Biology. United Kingdom: Caister Academic Press. Graumann, P. (Ed.) (2007). Bacillus: Cellular and Molecular Biology. United Kingdom: Caister Academic Press. Miliotis, M.D., & Bier, J.W. (Eds.) (2003). International Handbook of Foodborne Pathogens. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc.

    16. For More Info Studies: Amodio-Cocchieri, R., Cirillo, T., Villani, F., & Moschetti, G. (1998). The occurrence of Bacillus cereus in fast foods. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 49 (4), 303-308. Arnold, K., Drenzek, C., Salter, M., & Arduino, M.J. (2005). Outbreak of cutaneous Bacillus cereus infections among cadets in a university military program – Georgia, August 2004. MMWR, 54 (48), 1233-1235. Barrie, D., Hoffman, P.N., Wilson, J.A., & Kramer, J.M. (1994). Contamination of hospital linen by Bacillus cereus. Epidemiology and Infection, 113 (2), 297-306.

    17. For More Info Guven, K. & Mutlu, B. (2009). Properties of Bacillus cereus collected from different food sources. Turkish Journal of Biology, 33 (2), 101-108. Hedberg, C.W. Palazzi-Chursa, K.L., Radke, V.J., Selman, C.A., & Tauxe R.V. (2008). The use of clinical profiles in the investigation of foodborne outbreaks in restaurants: United States, 1982-1997. Epidemiology and Infection, 136 (1), 65-72. Magnusson, M., Christiansson, A., & Svensson, B. (2007). Bacillus cereus spores during housing of dairy cows: factors affecting contamination of raw milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 90 (6), 2745-2754.

    18. For More Info Sliman, R., Rehm, S., & Shlaes, D.M. (1987). Serious infections caused by Bacillus species. Medicine, 66 (3), 218-223. Stenfors Arnesen, L.P., Fagerlung, A., & Granum P.E. (2008). From soil to gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 32 (4), 579-606. Vissers, M.M., Te Giffel, M.C, Criehuls, F., De Jong, R., & Lankveld, J.M. (2007). Minimizing the level of Bacillus cereus spores in farm tank milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 90 (7), 3286-3293.

    19. Questions?