Our 2ND perspectiveCOGNITIVE Psychology(Working towards this perspective’sp1; p2; p3) Gemma Craddock firstname.lastname@example.org
Gemma’s PP Colour Coding • All text in BLACK relates to P1 • All text in BLUE relates to P2 • All text in RED relates to P3 • All text in PURPLE relates to P2 & P3
What have I got to know? • What are Piaget’s 4 Developmental Stages? • What is Kelly’s Personal Constructs Psychology? • How does this apply to health care practice? • How does this apply to social care practice?
Thought • Language Cognitive psychology tries to explain how we all experience the world in different ways.
Every day examples of changes to cognitive ability. • When people suffer from severe head trauma doctors frequently refer to their “Cognitive Abilities”. • Stroke victims lose the ability to move one side of their body and the ability to speak, many never regain this. • It’s even been know for victims to wake up speaking a different language. • There is a medical condition which makes you lose the ability to understand the purpose of objects. For example you have no idea what a chair is for! Scary eh! • As everyone gets older our cognitive abilities become weaker. Such as walking, talking, recognising, understanding and many more. • Illness’s such as Alzheimer’s and Dementia make us lose the ability to recognise people we have known for years.
Introduction There are two psychologist that you need to know about for this perspective-Jean Piaget and George Kelly. We will be looking at both in turn today so you will need to use your research notes in the lesson.
Jean Piaget • Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who looked into children’s cognitive abilities. He said that our Cognitive abilities develop over time, becoming more sophisticated and complex. These were put into stages. • What else can you tell me?...
Jean Piaget-A Biography (Research Preparation Activity) • When was he born? • Is he still alive? • Where did he live? • Where did he work? • Why is he important in Psychology?
Piaget’s theory • Piaget thought that intellectual development happened in stages • A child would only go on to the next stage once it had completely mastered the first one • Each stage is seen as a kind of 'building block' for the next stage to rest on
Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stages Sensorimotor (birth-2 years old) Formal Operational (adolescence-adulthood) Concrete Operational (7-11 years old) Preoperational (2-7 years old)
Sensory Motor Stage Sensory motor stage (birth to around 18 months). • During this stage the child gains understanding of its environment by using its senses in combination with movement. • Children utilize skills and abilities they were born with (such as looking, sucking, grasping, and listening) to learn more about the environment. • Babies develop object permanence at this stage. • They understand that when an object that they can see is covered up it is still there and doesn’t disappear, hence why they enjoy the game peek a boo when object permanence is still developing. Follow this link to access a summary video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjBh9ld_yIo
Pre-operational Stage • 2 years – 7 years • Understands the concept of object permanence • Thinking, memory, and language is developing • Child is egocentric – unable to see things from another persons point of view
Concrete Operational Stage • 7-11 years old • The child will begin to understand the concept of conservation -Ability to understand that objects remain the same even if their position is changed or if their shape is changed • The child will also become less egocentric • The child will gain the ability to carry out logical tasks, but only if the objects are in front of them
Formal Operational Stage • 12 years and above. • This stage is mainly governed by formal logic and is the most sophisticated stage of thinking. • E.g. If Bill is taller than Jim and shorter than John who is the tallest? • Children who attain the formal operation stage are capable of thinking logically and abstractly. They can also reason theoretically. Piaget considered this the ultimate stage of development, and stated that although the children would still have to revise their knowledge base, their way of thinking was as powerful as it would get.
Summary of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. Follow this link to access a summary video: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpO5w9mM-1M Please Note: • It is now thought that not every child reaches the formal operation stage. Developmental psychologists also debate whether children do go through the stages in the way that Piaget suggested. • Whether Piaget was correct or not, however, it is safe to say that this theory of cognitive development has had a tremendous influence on all modern developmental psychologists. Reference: http://penta.ufrgs.br/edu/telelab/3/piaget's.htm
P1 Writing Frame Humanistic Psychology P1: The theory of the cognitive perspective Piaget Explain each of Piaget’s 4 Developmental Stages
GEORGE KELLY-The Psychology of Personal Constructs • It was invented single-handed by George Kelly in 1955. He set out to replace the models of the person adopted by behaviourism and by psychoanalysis with the model of “man as scientist”. • This means he believed that every individual shaped the world around them based on what personally interested them. http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/personal.htm
How? • Kelly believed that we try things out to see whether they work: our “constructs” or ways of making sense of the world, are not necessarily conscious and articulate, but may be inferred from our own behaviour. • What else can you tell me?... • http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/personal.htm
George Kelly Biography (Research Preparation Activity) • When was he born? • Is he still alive? • Where did he live? • Where did he work? • Why is he important in Psychology?
Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) • Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) is not known as a “theory”, because it is the only approach in psychology which was developed from the start as a complete psychology. • This means it has its own assumptions and theoretical base.
George Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory • Kelly rejected the need for motivational concepts to explain human behavior. • Kelly saw us as our own personal scientists. • People like scientists, generate & test hypotheses about the way the world works. • Because no 2 people see the world the same, no 2 people behave the same or have the same personality.
How can personal constructs be used to explain personality differences? • Kelly argued that differences in our behaviour largely result from differences in the way people “construe the world.” • Suppose two people meet a new individual named Adam. • Person 1: uses friendly-unfriendly, fun loving-stuffy, and outgoing-shy constructs in forming his template for Adam’s behaviour.
Person 2: uses refined-gross, sensitive-insensitive, & intelligent-stupid constructs. • After both individuals interact with Adam they walk away with different impressions of Adam. • Person 1 believes that Adam is a friendly, fun-loving & outgoing person, whereas Person 2 thinks that Adam is gross, insensitive, & stupid. • The same situation is interpreted differently.
P1 Writing Frame Cognitive Psychology P1: The theory of the cognitive perspective Kelly Explain George Kelly’s Personal Constructs Psychology
Application to Health and Social Care Each perspective’s P2 and P3 for this unit will involve you exploring both a health and a social care based case study and applying the perspective to each case study to demonstrate your understanding.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy One assumption of the cognitive approach is that behaviour can be explained by mental processes; abnormal behaviour can therefore be explained by faulty mental processes, specifically irrational thinking patterns.
Therapies Therapies based on a cognitive understanding of mental disorders are known as ‘cognitive-behavioural therapies’. All therapies have the ultimate aim of making patients feel and function better however; cognitive therapies seek to do this by changing and improving the way a person thinks.
REBT • Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) was developed by Albert Ellis (1955) who later renamed it ‘Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy’ (REBT). According to Ellis, when we think rationally, we behave rationally, and as a consequence, we are happy, competent and effective.
REBT • The therapy is named Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy because the therapy aims to make the clients thoughts rational, (rather irrational); it also focuses on resolving emotional and behavioural problems. • The therapy focuses not only on cognitive aspect (thoughts) but also a behavioural aspect as the therapy highlights faulty thoughts are learnt and therefore can be unlearnt.
The main irrational belief which is challenged using REBT is Mustabatory thinking
Mustabatory Thinking • It is believed that the source of irrational beliefs lies in mustabatory thinking- thinking certain ideas or assumptions must be true for an individual to be happy. • The three most important irrational beliefs are: • I must be approved of or accepted by people I find important • I must do well or very well otherwise I am worthless • The world must give me happiness or I will die.
Irrational Beliefs An individual who holds these expectations will eventually be disappointed and may become depressed. i.e. if an individual suffers from rejection he/she may become depressed, however it is perhaps not because they have been rejected, but because they hold an irrational belief about why they have been rejected i.e. he/she doesn’t like me so I must be fat/ugly/stupid rather than he/she has feelings for someone else.
Rational Thinking Ellis believed such ‘musts’ need to be challenged in order for mental healthiness and it is the task of the therapist to challenge directly, the negative assumptions people make through their thinking. Clients are encouraged to monitor and challenge their negative, automatic thoughts, and to accept more rational explanations of their own experience and behaviour.
ABC Model • Ellis proposed to deal with irrational thoughts you must identify them using the ABC model • Activating event • Beliefs which lead to self-defeating consequences • Consequences
ABC Model • ABC was extended to include D and E: • Disputing beliefs • Effects of disputing beliefs • (NOTE: it is not the event that causes the consequence it is the belief) • Once identified the therapist challenges the irrational beliefs during the session using: • Logical disputing: self-defeating beliefs are not logical based on the information available. • Empirical disputing: self-defeating beliefs are not consistent with reality (where is your proof) • Pragmatic disputing: how helpful is that belief?
Disputing irrational beliefs • Disputing these beliefs helps the client feel better and eventually become more self- accepting. Disputing the irrational beliefs with the client helps them to move forward. • Unconditional positive regard: REBT encourages clients to develop an unconditional acceptance of themselves, and recognise that everybody makes mistakes sometimes - If a client feels worthless they will be less likely to consider changing their beliefs or behaviour. The therapist must therefore respect the client and show appreciation regardless of what the client is saying.
Applying Cognitive Psychology to Health Care Practice (P2) P2 Scenario Georgia achieved good grades in her BTEC Health and Social Care course and is a bright midwifery student at university; however due to difficult personal circumstances she failed her first university examinations and since then Georgia has stayed in her bed refusing to go to back to university. Georgia believes there is no point going back to university because everyone will be laughing at her for failing her exams. Furthermore to be able to become a midwife and be successful, you must do well at university and she believes she isn’t clever enough to do very well and must be stupid, as she failed her exams, therefore she must leave university as she doesn’t deserve her place. Georgia’s mum has told her to stop being silly and go back to university- Georgia’s doctor has referred Georgia for therapy.
Applying Cognitive Psychology to Health Care Practice (P2) Your P2 Task: • Describe how the approach would explain Georgia’s behaviour (Mustabatory thinking and an activating event followed with irrational beliefs) • Explain how the cognitive approach would help Georgia overcome her depression (Challenging the ‘musts’ disputing the irrational beliefs and giving the individual unconditional positive regard)
Applying Cognitive Psychology to Social Care Practice (P3) P3 scenario (1) You have been placed in charge of the 4 family rooms at ‘Our Coventry Child Contact Centre’ The family rooms can be available for booking for use by professional organisations for observed contact time between vulnerable children and their families and for foster care meetings. Your job is to ensure the rooms have suitable activities for the children to do while they are there. P3 Task 1: Each room has a specific age range- using your understanding of Piaget’s stages of development you must identify two activities which would be appropriate for each room and explain why they are appropriate.The rooms are as follows: Room1 (0-2 years old), Room 2 (2-7 years old), Room 3 (7-11 years old), Room 4 (11 + years old).
Applying Cognitive Psychology to Social Care Practice (P3) The contact rooms can also be booked for social gathering for vulnerable adults: Learning difficulties refer to any problems experienced with reading, writing, spelling and mathematics. They tend to be specific in nature, and relate to a neurological condition which impairs cognitive development. P3 Scenario (2) Mary is 19 years old and has learning difficulties. She is putting out the biscuits for coffee. There are five people for coffee and they need two biscuits each. She needs to find five mugs which would hold roughly an equal amount of liquid (the mugs in the cupboard vary in shape and size) and put two biscuits on each plate, then count them all to find out how many biscuits she used. Mary is undertaking the task, but she is finding this task challenging. Edward is 21 and has Autism, he can find the social gatherings very difficult, he becomes frustrated easily with the other members as they often disagree with him. He struggles when social norms such as turn taking are ignored by others and when he is asked to do a number of tasks all at once. P3 Task 2: Explain what stage of development they are in and what must a Social Care practitioner do in order to support service users such as Mary and Edward.