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3.6: Two Approaches to Conserving Biodiversity. Chapter 18-day 3. The SLOSS Debate. Human Causes of Species Endangerment. Conservation Biology. Scientific study of how humans impact organisms and the development of ways to protect biodiversity Involves: Protecting habitats

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3 6 two approaches to conserving biodiversity

3.6: Two Approaches to Conserving Biodiversity

Chapter 18-day 3

The SLOSS Debate

conservation biology
Conservation Biology
  • Scientific study of how humans impact organisms and the development of ways to protect biodiversity
  • Involves:
    • Protecting habitats
    • Restoring damaged or destroyed habitats
    • Zoos, aquaria, botanical gardens
    • Seed banks
conservation biology1
Conservation Biology
  • In-Situ: in nature
    • Protecting Habitats
    • restoration ecology
  • Ex-Situ: out of nature
    • zoos, aquaria, , botanical gardens, seed banks


in situ restoring damaged habitats
In-situ: Restoring Damaged Habitats
  • Restoration ecology
    • Goal is to return it to its former state
    • Ex: Reforestation in Panama
  • Benefits
    • Creates biological habitats
    • Regeneration of soil damaged by agriculture or mining
  • Disadvantages
    • Expensive
    • Take a long time to restore an area
in situ restoring damaged habitats1
In-situ Restoring Damaged Habitats

Left: (1935) Early stages of prairie restoration

ex situ zoos aquaria and botanical garden
Ex-situ: Zoos, Aquaria and Botanical Garden
  • Save organisms from extinction
    • Artificial insemination
    • Embryo transfer
    • Surrogate mothers (right)
  • Goal reintroduction back to their natural habitat
the single species approach captive breeding video
The Single Species ApproachCaptive Breeding video
  • Channel Islands, CA: Island Fox


endangered and threatened species
Endangered and Threatened Species
  • Endangered Species
    • Species that faces threats that may cause it to become extinct within a short period
  • Threatened Species
    • Species whose population has declined to the point that it may be at risk of extinction
characteristic of endangered species
Characteristic of Endangered Species
  • Extremely small (localized) range
  • Requiring a large territory
  • Living on an island
  • Having a low reproductive success
  • Small population size
  • Low reproductive rates
  • Requiring specialized breeding areas
  • Having specialized feeding habitats
california condor
California Condor
  • Scavenger bird
  • Requires large, undisturbed territory
    • 1983- only 22 birds
    • 1987-1992- no longer found in nature
    • 1992- reintroduced to nature from zoos
  • Currently- 200 condors in nature
where is declining biological diversity the greatest problem
Where is Declining Biological Diversity the Greatest Problem?
  • Concern throughout the US
  • US- Most serious in:
    • Hawaii (63% of species at risk)
    • California (29% of species at risk)
  • Globally- Most serious in tropical rain forests
    • South and Central America
    • Central Africa
    • SE Asia
lacey act 1900
Lacey Act (1900)
  • Prohibited the transport of illegally harvested game animals, primarily birds and mammals, across state lines.
cites 1973
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
  • Control the international trade of threatened plants and animals.
  • Today, CITIES is an international agreement between 175 countries of the world.
red list
Red List
  • The IUCN keeps a list of threatened species, known as the red list.
  • Each country has its own way to monitor and regulate the import and export of animals on the list.
  • Black market animal trade ~$20 billion annually
conservation legislation
Conservation Legislation
  • Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972)- prohibits the killing of all marine mammals in the U.S. and prohibits the import or export of any marine mammal body parts.
endangered species act
Endangered Species Act
    • Species are designated as endangered or threatened based on biological grounds

Controversial Legislation

      • Does not provide compensation for private property owners who suffer financial loss
  • Was not reauthorized in 1992 as scheduled:
    • Private property rights vs. conservation
    • Financial cost of law
the northern spotted owl
The Northern Spotted Owl

Not Just Jobs Versus the Environment

interest groups
Interest Groups

The livelihood of thousands of loggers

Large tracts of old-growth(virgin) forests

The Northern Spotted Owl (Endangered Species)

significance of old growth
Significance of Old Growth
  • Ancient organisms(2000 years old)
  • Uneven-aged stands: structural complexity
  • Limited geographic area: Pacific North West and Alaska
  • Living laboratories of natures complexity NOT understood yet
  • Home to 40 T/E species
commercial significance of old growth forests
Commercial Significance of Old Growth Forests
  • Rural communities of the Pacific NW depend solely on timber industry
  • No diversity in the local economy
  • “Save a logger, kill and owl”
economics and the environmental sustainability
Economics and the Environmental Sustainability
  • In the 1980’s the timber industry was declining.
  • Logging INCREASED by 15%
  • Jobs DECREASED by 15%
why timber industry declined
Why Timber Industry Declined
  • AUTOMATION of the industry
  • UNSUSTAINABLE cutting practices
  • States Diversifies their economies
  • Timber Industry’s share to OR & WA state economies was just 4%
political solution
Political Solution
  • 1993 President Clinton calls for a Timber Summit in Portland, OR
  • Created the 1994 Northwest Forest Plan
northwest forest plan details
Northwest Forest Plan Details
  • Job re-training for loggers (“Jobs for the Environment”)
  • Logging was resumed at 1/5 the level prior
  • 75% of the federal timber land “reserved” to safeguard watersheds and protect T/E species
success stories
Success Stories
  • Bald Eagle
  • Gray Wolf
  • American Alligator
  • Gray whale
habitat conservation plans
Habitat Conservation Plans
    • 1982 Amendment to ESA
    • Way to resolve conflicts between development interests and protection of endangered species
  • Landowner may take a rare species
    • IF taking does not threatened the survival of recovery of the species on that property
    • Landowner must set aside land for species
convention on biological diversity 1992
Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)
  • The treaty had three objectives:
    • 1) conserve biodiversity
    • 2) sustainably use biodiversity
    • 3) and equitably share the benefits that emerge from the commercial use of genetic resources such as pharmaceutical drugs.
wildlife management
Wildlife Management
  • Manage wild species and their habitats for human benefit or for the welfare of other species
wildlife management1
Wildlife Management
  • Migratory Animals
    • Ex: Arctic Snow Geese- increase in population has damaged much of Arctic fragile coastal ecosystem
size shape and connectedness
Size, Shape and Connectedness
  • how close to another area they should be
  • how large the area is
  • the amount of edge habitat the area contains.
you can make a difference
You Can Make A Difference
  • Increase public awareness of the importance of biological diversity
  • Join and actively support conservation organization
  • Inform state and national politicians of desire to have conservation research funded with tax dollars
  • Establish parks by writing to national lawmakers
  • Control pollution