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Food and Nutrition. Glossary Terms. Instructions: click on a letter and you will be directed to a page of words (with their definitions) beginning with that letter. To return to this page click the HOME button. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T.

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food and nutrition

Food and Nutrition

Glossary Terms

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Instructions: click on a letter and you will be directed to a page of words (with their definitions) beginning with that letter. To return to this page click the HOME button.

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

Scont.

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

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A

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  • Al dente: ‘firm to bite’ – a test for well cooked pasta. Where a small piece is bitten between the teeth to check it is firm but not hard.
  • Amino acids: the building blocks or basic units which join together to form proteins.
  • Anaemia: an illness where insufficient red blood cells cause paleness and tiredness.
  • Antioxidants: substances which prevent oxidation reactions happening, e.g. Vitamins C and E, carotene.
  • Ascorbic acid: another name for Vitamin C.
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B

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  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR): the speed/intensity at which a person’s metabolism works when they are at rest.
  • Baste: spoon cooking liquid over food while it is cooking.
  • Boiling: moist heat method of cooking, where the food is immersed in boiling water.
  • Braising: moist heat cooking method, where large pieces of meat are cooked in a casserole with a sauce, e.g. topside steak.
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C

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  • Calcium: mineral needed for strong bones and teeth.
  • Carbohydrate (CHO): a nutrient made up of single, double or longer chains of sugar molecules – usually used as an energy source in the body.
  • Carotene: an antioxidant. It can be converted in the body to Vitamin A.
  • Casserole: a dish used to cook several foods together – usually meat and vegetables in the oven. The resulting mixture of foods (like a stew) is also called a ‘casserole’ after the glass, metal or pottery dish it has been cooked in.
  • Casseroling: moist heat method of cooking meat using a casserole dish in the oven.
  • Cereals: seeds of grasses. Used to make flours and breakfast cereals.
  • Cholesterol: a waxy fat found in foods and produced in the liver.
  • Connective tissue: tissue which holds muscle fibres and organs together.
  • Curdle: to make into curds or congeal.
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D

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  • Dehydration: loss of moisture or water from the body. It is dangerous because body reactions cannot occur without water. It can be a problem when small children experience diarrhoea and vomiting.
  • Diet: a pattern of eating.
  • Dietary fibre: food fibre found in the cell walls of plant foods. There are several types.
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E

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  • Emulsifier: a substance which can hold oil and water solutions together, e.g. an egg yolk in mayonnaise.
  • Emulsion: a mixture of oil and water.
  • Energy: the kilojoule (kJ) content of food.
  • Enzyme: a protein molecule that catalyses body reactions. Often contains a vitamin in its structure. Enzymes in foods cause ripening and, eventually, decay.
  • Evaporated milk: milk that has been reduced to 60% of its original volume.
  • Extraction rate: expressed as a percentage, this gives an idea of how much of a wheat grain is present in flour. A 100% extraction rate means that all the grain is used.
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F

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  • Fat: form of lipid which is solid at room temperature.
  • Fat-soluble: able to dissolve in fat. Vitamins A and D are fat-soluble vitamins.
  • Fatty acids: long carbon chains that join glycerol to make fats.
  • Fibre: a group of substances present in all plant cells. Some are partially digested, some not at all.
  • Folate (folic acid): a B-vitamin needed for the formation of red blood cells.
  • Food and Nutrition Guidelines: guidelines developed by the Ministry of Health to give New Zealanders advice on how to maintain a healthy diet.
  • Food source: food in which a nutrient is present.
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G

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  • Glycemic index: a rating of foods based on their effect on raising blood glucose levels.
  • Glycogen: a polysaccharide made from carbohydrate that is not needed for immediate energy needs and is stored in the liver.
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H

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  • Homongenisation: process by which fat particles are spread throughout milk.
  • Hydronisation: the addition of hydrogen to vegetable oils to form a semi-soft spread.
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I

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  • Iodine: forms part of thyroxine, a hormone produced by the thyroid gland (controls rate of activity of the body).
  • Iron: mineral needed as part of haemoglobin in red blood cells.
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J

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K

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  • Kilojoules (kJ): a metric measurement of energy. One kilojoule equals 4.2 kilocalories (usually referred to as ‘calories’).
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L

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  • Lecithin: substance in egg yolk which acts as an emulsifier.
  • Lipid: lipids can be fats (solid at room temperature, 20˚C) or oils (liquid at room temperature, 20˚C).
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M

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  • Marinated: process by which meat or fish is soaked in a liquid that contains acid ingredients; this tenderises meat and coagulates fish protein.
  • Meal planning: a process by which the preparing and serving of meals is organised.
  • Metabolism: a name for the many chemical reactions that take place in the body. ‘Protein metabolism’ refers to the chemical reactions involving the production and use of protein in the body.
  • Micro-organisms: microscopic organisms which include bacteria, yeasts and moulds (fungi).
  • Milk powder: milk solids left after liquid milk has had all the water removed; reconstituted by adding water.
  • Minerals: elements such as calcium, needed in very small amounts in the body.
  • Mono-unsaturated: name for a fatty acid which has space for only one hydrogen atom.
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N

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  • Nutrient-dense food: a food that contains all the six nutrient groups (protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and water).
  • Nutrients: basic building blocks of food which the body uses for growth and energy. There are six types of nutrients – protein, lipid, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and water.
  • Nutrition: study of nutrients and what they do in the body.
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O

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  • Oils: lipids that are liquid at room temperature, 20˚C.
  • Oxidase: an enzyme which is present in cells and released when cells are cut or bruised. It destroys vitamin C.
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P

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  • Pasteurisation: process by which bacteria in milk are killed to make the milk safer to drink.
  • Pathogens: micro-organisms which cause disease or illness.
  • Pectin: found in ripe fruit, acts as a setting agent (e.g. in jams).
  • Polyunsaturated: term for fatty acids which can receive more than one hydrogen atom.
  • Preservatives: substances added to foods to stop them decaying.
  • Process: a systematic, planned sequence of actions or techniques. A process in meal preparation is made up of at least three related techniques.
  • Protein: a nutrient made up of amino acids. Its main function in the body is for growth and maintenance.
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Q

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R

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  • Rancid: description of fats which have oxidised and developed an ‘off’ flavour.
  • Rennet: a preparation containing the enzyme rennin, which causes milk to clot.
  • Retinol: vitamin A.
  • Roughage: ‘old’ term for food fibre found in plant proteins.
  • Roux method: one method of making a white sauce with a mixture of butter, flour and milk.
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S

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  • Saturated: description of a lipid which has every bond available filled with hydrogen; usually found in animal foods.
  • Score: to ‘cut through’ the surface of food (e.g. fish before cooking).
  • Sedentary: ‘done sitting down’. Sedentary jobs include truck-driving and typing.
  • Simmer: maintain gentle bubbling just below boiling point.
  • Single sugars: single carbohydrate units, e.g. glucose, fructose.
  • Skim milk: milk with reduced fat content.
  • Smoke point: temperature at which a heated fat or oil begins to produce blue smoke.
  • Soya milk: ‘milk’ from soya beans, contains polyunsaturated fat.
  • Standing time: the time in which microwaved goods stand after cooking so cooking can continue.
s continued
Scontinued…

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  • Starch: a carbohydrate made up of many glucose molecules.
  • Starches: a type of polysaccharide.
  • Stewing: a moist heat method of cooking meat in a pot.
  • Structure: the form of something; its shape or construction.
  • Sugars: simple carbohydrates containing only one or two sugar units.
  • Sweetened condensed milk: milk reduced to 30% of its original volume and then has sugar added; used mainly for baking purposes.
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T

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  • Technique: a simple skill used in the preparation of food e.g. peel or scrape, measure, slice, chop, dice, mix, puree, fold, season, whip, melt etc.
  • Texture: the consistency or ‘feel’ of something – the way food ‘feels’ in the mouth.
  • Time plan: a plan, sometimes written, giving the order of tasks required to prepare and serve a meal.
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U

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  • UHT milk: milk that has been ultra heat treated – heated rapidly at very high temperatures to sterilise it.
  • Unsaturated: mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acids have some spaces still available for hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fats contain such fatty acids.
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V

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  • Vegan: a person who does not eat any animal products.
  • Vegetarian: a person who does not eat meat.
  • Vitamins: different kinds of nutrients needed in small amounts in the body, often as part of the structure of enzymes, e.g. Vitamins A, C and D.
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W

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  • Water-soluble: able to dissolve in water. Vitamin C and most of the B group vitamins are water-soluble.
  • Whey: the water liquid residue left when milk has formed curds.
  • Whole fish: the complete body of a fish, including fins, tail and head.
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X

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Y

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  • Yeast: a living organism which breaks down sugar to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide; used as a raising agent in bread-making.
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Z

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