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POWERS OF TEN. “ power of 10 ” means 10 raised to some number; e.g.: 10 2 = 10  10 10 5 = 10  10  10  10  10 10 n = n factors of 10; n = “exponent” scientific notation:

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POWERS OF TEN


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powers of ten
POWERS OF TEN
  • “power of 10 ”
    • means 10 raised to some number; e.g.: 102 = 10  10 105 = 10  10  10  10  10 10n = n factors of 10; n = “exponent”
  • scientific notation:
    • express numbers as: a  10n , where a is a number “of order 1” (i.e. between 1 and 10)
    • negative exponent: 10-n means 1/(10n)
    • to multiply two powers, add their exponents: 102 105 = 107
    • thousand = 103 , million = 106
    • common prefixes used to denote powers of ten:
      • kilo (k) = 103 ,
      • Mega (M) = 106 ,
      • Giga (G) = 109
      • Tera (T) = 1012
      • milli (m) = 10-3 ,
      • micro () = 10-6
      • nano (n) = 10-9
      • pico (p) = 10-12
units
Units
  • “Metric units”
    • apart from few exceptions, “metric units”, or rather “SI units” are used throughout the world; (“SI” stands for “Système International”, maintained by the “Societé Internationale des Poids et Mesures”, = international society of weights and measures, with seat in Sèvres near Paris)
    • basic units are, e.g.: meter for distance, kilogram for mass, second for time;
    • meter originally defined as 1/(4  107)  length of Earth's meridian; now defined in terms of speed of light;
    • some common distance units:
      • kilometer, km = 103 m,
      • centimeter, cm = 10-2 m,
      • millimeter, mm = 10-3 m,
      • micrometer, µm = 10-6 m,
      • nanometer, nm, 10-9 m
    • “metric” vs “English” distance units:
      • 1 km  0.62 mi, 1mi  1.6 km,
      • 1 m  3.3 ft  39 in,
      • 1cm  0.39 in, 1 in = 2.54 cm