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Out-the-boxwith Technology, Inc. Tikisha Graham Debra Green Monica Jones Yolanda Scott Renelda Windham Joe Young
Impairment Impairment: Any loss of abnormality of psychological, or anatomical structure or function. Other Health Impaired (OHI): A disability-having a chronic health problem which affects learning in school. Visually Impaired (VI) An individual with diminished eyesight capabilities. Hearing Impaired- An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness. Orthopedic impairment: A severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects educational performance. The term includes impairments such as amputation, absence of a limb, cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, and bone tuberculosis.
Disability Disability: Any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.
Handicap Handicap is therefore a function of the relationship between disabled persons and their environment. It occurs when they encounter cultural, physical or social barriers which prevent their access to the various systems of society that are available to other citizens. Thus, handicap is the loss or limitation of opportunities to take part in the life of the community on an equal level with others.
Assistive Technology Assistive Technology (AT): Any item, piece of equipment, or system that helps kids with disabilities bypass, work around, or compensate for specific learning deficits.
Mainstreaming Mainstreaming: A term which refers to the time a special education student participates in chronologically age-appropriate general education activities, either academic or nonacademic (e.g., math and reading or lunch, recess, and art).
Inclusion Inclusion: Bringing the services to the child rather than bringing the child to the services. Involvement in mainstream activities comparable to those provided general education students is the focus.
Assistive Technology Device Assistive Technology devices can help improve physical or mental functioning, overcome a disorder or impairment, help prevent the worsening of a condition, strengthen a physical or mental weakness, help improve a person's capacity to learn, or even replace a missing limb. An assistive technology (AT) device includes any item, piece of equipment, or product system that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functioning of individuals with disabilities. It may be purchased commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of such a device. AT devices range from low tech, such as a magnifying glass to high tech, such as a computer that responds to touch and allows a child to communicate more effectively.
No tech, low tech, & high tech high tech: use of electronics or computers as a solution. Computerized VOCAs that vary from single purpose appliance-like systems to multipurpose computer-based communication aids. Typically high-tech systems require training and ongoing support to operate the devices (e.g., Video Cameras, Computers and Adaptive Hardware, Complex Voice Output Devices). low tech: indicates use of low cost non-electronic solutions. Simple paper or object based systems, i.e. do not require a battery. (e.g., Talking Mats, Dry Erase Boards, Clipboards, 3-Ring Binders, Manila File Folders, Photo Albums, Laminated PCS/Photographs, Highlight tape). No tech: refers to any assistive device that is not electronic. No-tech items range from a piece of foam glued onto the corners of book pages to make turning easier to a study carrel to reduce distraction.
Alternative keyboard Alternative keyboard: may include enlarged, reduced, varied key placement, one-handed, Braille, chordic, or any other device for entering text on a computer. It may be different from standard keyboards in size, shape, layout, or function. They offer individuals with special needs greater efficiency, control, and comfort. For example, a traditional QWERTY keyboard may be confusing to a child with a developmental disability and can be replaced with a keyboard that lists letters A-Z in big, bold letters and doesn’t contain a lot of “extra” keys. This makes focusing on spelling and typing words a lot easier.
FM amplification system FM system: a local wireless broadcast system that consists of a microphone and transmitter for the speaker and "walkman-like" receivers with headphones for listeners with hearing impairments or attention disorders.
Joystick A joystick- may be used as an alternate input device. Joysticks that can be plugged into the computer’s mouse port can control the cursor on the screen. Other joysticks plug into game ports and depend on software that is designed to accept joystick control.
Optical character recognition Optical character recognition (OCR) software works with a scanner to convert images from a printed page into a standard computer file. With OCR software, the resulting computer file can be edited. Pictures and photographs do not require OCR software to be manipulated.
Screen reader Screen reader: software that reads text on a computer screen using a speech synthesizer. This allows individuals with visual impairments or other print disabilities to access text on the computer screen.
Switch switch: a device that is like a single button of a keyboard or mouse. Switches may be used by an individual with severe motor difficulties by any controllable muscle in their body (head, hand, toe, eye, breath, etc.) to operate any type of computer, communication or environmental control device. Switches offer an alternative method of providing input to a computer when it is not possible to use a standard keyboard or mouse. Switches come in various sizes, shapes, methods of activation and placement options. Some software programs have been developed specifically for use with a switch and can employ on-screen scanning. With on-screen scanning, the computer highlights the options available to the user, who then selects the desired action. When a visual or auditory prompt indicates a specific keyboard or mouse function, the user activates the switch and the desired function occurs. Other programs have built-in options for switch use.
Web accessibility Web accessibility- Universal accessibility to the World Wide Web means that all people, regardless of their physical or developmental abilities, have access to Web-based information and services. Making Web pages accessible is accomplished by designing them to work with adaptive technologies, such as screen readers. It also means making color, font size, and page design decisions that make it possible for the widest range of individuals to access the information.
Legal Directives • No Child Left Behind (NCLB)2001 • NCLB represents legislation that attempts to accomplish standards-based education reform. The law reauthorized federal programs meant to hold primary and secondary schools measurably accountable to higher standards. It also provided more opportunities to parents for school choice and placed a greater emphasis on reading in schools. NCLB is written so that it requires 100% of students (including special education students and those from disadvantaged background) within a school to reach the same set of state standards in math and reading by the year 2014. • Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1997 Public Law 105-17 • IDEA is a federal law that guarantees all students between the ages of 3 through 21 with disabilities the right to a free appropriate public education designed to meet their individual needs. It also offers protections for the rights of students with disabilities and their parents. Students are entitled to a free appropriate public education, education in their least restrictive environment, have a fair assessment, and received related services as well as have an individual education plan and parent consent to the entire due process procedures.
Universal Design for Learning • What is it? • Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for designing curricula that enable all individuals to gain knowledge, skills, and enthusiasm for learning. UDL provides rich supports for learning and reduces barriers to the curriculum while maintaining high achievement standards for all. • Three parts of Universal Design for Learning • Multiple means of representation to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, • Multiple means of expression to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, and • Multiple means of engagement to tap into learners' interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn. • UDL is used with technology with the intent to increase access to learning by reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, and organizational barriers to learning, as well as other obstacles to insure all students have the opportunity to learn.
10 Strategies for Technology Integration Strategies for Special Education students 1. Use text-to-speech products and readers 2. Provide a range of tools to support student writers 3.Use talking word processors 4. Use digital cameras to capture images of objects and environments 5.Use specialized calculators 6. Use alternative keyboards 7. Use joysticks or switches instead of keyboards 8. Use voice recognition software and Use optical character recognition 9.Incorporate music and poetry for students to read and listen to 10.Create an Independent Project activity to explore a special area of interest related to the topic being studied
Technology Integration Strategies for Special Education Students • For individuals with mild cognitive disabilities: • Reading: Use reading skill software, text-to-speech products, interactive storybooks. • Writing: Use voice recognition software and word prediction software. • Mathematics: Use graphing software, drills, games, and tutorials. • For individuals with moderate to severe cognitive disabilities: • Software helps teach/reinforce functional skills (e.g., money management, daily living, employability). • Videos enhance acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of functional and community-based behaviors. • Provide alternative methods of accessing keyboard, mouse, and/or monitor.
Technology Integration Strategies for Special Education Students cont… • Students with Physical Disabilities • Determine the best placement of adaptive technologies, and provide training to ensure the student is able to operate it independently. • Monitor function to ensure maximum level of participation is obtained without undue physical demands.
Technology Integration Strategies for Special Education Students cont… Sensory Disabilities • For individuals who are blind: • Use canes and sensor technologies to assist movement. • Use text-to-Braille converters. • Use screen readers. • For individuals who are visually impaired: • Use closed-circuit television(CCTV) magnification systems. • Use built-in computer screen magnification control panels. • For individuals who are hearing impaired: • Use FM amplification systems (assistive listening devices). • Locate software and websites that provide powerful and motivating opportunities to engage in learning activities.
Technology Integration Strategies for Special Education Students cont… • At-Risk Students: • Utilize electronic quizzes and other instructional materials that provide immediate feedback on performance. • Locate starting point web pages to launch them into content with appropriate challenges. • Students with Gifts and Talents: • Provide tools for engaging in self-directed research • Provide tools such as multimedia presentations, web page design, and electronic portfolios to document learning experiences.
Resources http://www.icoe.k12.ca.us/NR/rdonlyres/C13A0938-D066-4A08-BA7A-1CF67D16F6E8/8952/DictionaryofSpecialEducationalTerms.pdf http://www.accessiblesociety.org/topics/demographics-identity/dkaplanpaper.htm http://www.rehabtool.com/at.html http://www.fctd.info/show/glossary http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assistive_technology http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Assistive_Technology/ http://www.education.com/reference/article/technology-strategies-special-education/ http://www.cast.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Design_for_Learning http://www.education.com/reference/article/top-ten-strategies-special-education/ http://k6educators.about.com/od/educationglossary/g/gnclb.htm