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Africa. Ancient Egypt. 3000 B.C.

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ancient egypt

Ancient Egypt

3000 B.C.

egypt geography

The Nile is the world’s longest river (4160 miles) and provides the people of Egypt with predictable yearly floods to bring them water (Egypt receives almost no rainfall). Egypt’s geography also protected the people from foreign invasion with deserts & cataracts.

Egypt & Geography

Compare/contrast the geography of Egypt with Sumer.

egyptian government
Around 3000 B.C., Narmer united Upper & Lower Egypt and set-up the first government that ruled the whole country from the capital city of Memphis. His reign marked the beginning of the first Egyptian dynasty.

The Egyptian form of government was a theocracy. Therefore, the king not only had absolute power, but performed many ritual acts as well.

Egyptian Government

Locate Upper and Lower Egypt on your map.

egyptian writing
Hieroglyphs are pictures that were used to write the ancient Egyptian language. In the beginning hieroglyphic signs were used to keep records of the king's possessions. Scribes could easily make these records by drawing a picture of a cow or a boat followed by a number.

But as the language became more complex more pictures were needed. Eventually the language consisted of more then 750 individual signs.

Egyptian Writing

How were experts able to decipher hieroglyphics?

egyptian social classes
Royalty, nobles and priests formed the top of the social order. They controlled religious and political affairs.

The middle class was made up of artisans, scribes, merchants and tax collectors.

The majority of Egyptians belonged to the poor class. Many were farmers & paid rent to the king for the use of the land (a large percentage). Farmers also worked on building projects for the king.

Egyptian Social Classes

Draw a graphic of the Egyptian social classes.

egyptian religion
Religion guided every aspect of Egyptian life. Egyptian religion was based on polytheism, except for during the reign of Akenaton. The Egyptians had as many as 2000 gods and goddesses. Some, such as Amun, were worshipped throughout the whole country, while others had only a local following. Often gods and goddesses were represented as part human and part animal. Egyptian Religion

Ra (the principal sun god)

Who was Akenaton?


Refer to the handout on the pyramids.

nubia kush 3000 bc ad 350
Southern part of the Nile River Valley

Interaction with Egypt

Under Egyptian rule (c. 1500 BC – 1000 BC)

Cultural diffusion: Egyptian gods found on Nubian gold

King Piankhi – 724 BC invaded & conquered Egypt

Pushed out of Egypt by Assyrians in 671 BC (bronze v. iron weapons)

New capital at Meroë – successful trading center (gold, ivory, animal skins, perfume, slaves & timber)

Nubian culture: polytheistic, artistic & an undeciphered alphabet

Invaded by King Ezana of Axum AD 350

Nubia / Kush (3000 BC – AD 350)
critical thinking questions
Which African kingdom did geography have the greatest impact on?

How did the Book of the Dead reflect Egyptian values?

Choose an African Kingdom & show how it’s art/architecture reflected the values of the kingdom.

How did the movement of goods & people affect the different areas of Africa (Northeast & sub-Saharan)?

Critical Thinking Questions