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網際網路之沿革與趨勢. 林振緯. Department of Computer Science & Information Engineering, Fun Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan jwlin@csie.fju.edu.tw. Nov. 12, 2004. Outline. Introduction Wireless LAN GSM GPRS 3G Mobile IP. Networks Today. Core Networks. The WWW. IP based Internet. LAN.

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slide1

網際網路之沿革與趨勢

林振緯

Department of Computer Science & Information Engineering,

Fun Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan

jwlin@csie.fju.edu.tw

Nov. 12, 2004

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Wireless LAN
  • GSM
  • GPRS
  • 3G
  • Mobile IP
networks today
Networks Today

Core Networks

The WWW

IP based Internet

LAN

Modem, ADSL

PSTN

Network

Wireless

Network

MPLS

Network

ATM

Network

Other Services

Wireless

Video Server

(By Dr. Zheng da Wu)

wireless internet
Wireless Internet
  • New area
    • Diverse mobile devices
    • Wireless communication networks
    • Internet
    • Users can access various services, any time and any where
wireless lans and wans
Wireless LANs and WANs

100 m

2,500 m

LAN

WAN

wireless lan
Wireless LAN
  • Replace the wired Ethernet LANs in a local area
  • Provide access to wired LANs and the Internet
  • Offer high data rates
    • Currently, up to 54 Mbps
major standards for wlan
Major Standards for WLAN
  • HIPERLAN
    • High Performance Radio LAN
    • European standard
  • IEEE 802.11
    • US standard
    • Today, it holds the entire market
two modes of ieee 802 11
Two Modes of IEEE 802.11
  • Infrastructure Mode
    • Terminals communicate to an access point.
  • Ad Hoc Mode
    • Terminals communicate in a peer-to-peer basis without any access point.
802 11 infrastructure mode
802.11 - Infrastructure Mode

IEEE 802.11 LAN

BSS-2

BSS-1

AP

AP

Basic Service Set (BSS) – the stations and AP within the same radio coverage.

Database for location management andRoaming

Distribution System

Portal

Internet

Internetworking

Wired IEEE 802.x LAN

802 11 ad hoc mode
802.11 – Ad Hoc mode

Internet

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks(MANET)

  • Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)
  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)
access point ap
Access Point (AP)
  • A layer 2 bridge between IEEE 802.11 and Ethernet
  • A switched Ethernet subnet attached to the layer 2 distributed network
  • A finite range, on the order of 500 feet indoor and 1000 feet outdoors
slide12

Other WLAN APs

User DB

L2

distribution

network

AAA

roaming

Access

Router

AAA

Server/Proxy

IP

backbone

network

WLAN

terminals

L2 distribution networks

AP

Billing

System

Local

Service

HTTP

server

Access

Router

WLAN

terminals

AP

Gateway

Interface to external IP networks (Internet)

DNS

DHCP

WLAN

Radio interface

WLAN, IP and Internet

IP interface

global system for mobile communications gsm
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
  • Frequency Band
    • 890 – 915, 935-960 MHz
      • Channel spacing: 200 KHz
      • Total channel number: 124
      • Number of slots per channel: 8
  • Multiple Access
    • TDMA and FDMA
  • Data services up to 9.6 kbps
slide14

Architecture of GSM

Base Station SubSystem

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

cellular telephone system

Base Station Controller (BSC)

Network SubSystem

Mobile station (MS) with smart card, Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

Mobile Service Switching Center (MSC)

Home Location Register, (HLR)

PSTN, ISDN, PSPDN, CSPDN

Equipment ID register (EIR) and Authentication center (AuC)

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

  • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
  • PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)
  • PSPDN (Packet Switched Public Data Net.)
  • CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Net.)
mobile station ms
Mobile Station (MS)
  • Mobile Equipment
    • International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number
  • Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
    • Personal Identification Number (PIN)
    • International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) number
    • Enables access to subscribed services
slide16

Base Station Subsystem

  • Base Transceiver Subsystem (BTS)
    • House the radio transceivers the radio link protocols with mobile stations
  • Base Station Controller (BSC)
    • Manage the radio resources for one or more BTSs
    • Handle radio-channel set up, frequency hopping, and handovers
slide17

Network Subsystem

  • Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)
  • Home Location Register (HLR)
  • Visitor Location Register (VLR)
  • Authentication Center (AUC)
  • Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
  • Short Message Service (SMS)
mobile switching centre msc
Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)
  • Performs all switching/exchange functions
  • Handles
    • Registration
    • Authentication
    • Location updating
  • May connect to other networks
    • Gateway MSC (GMSC)
home and visitor location registers
Home and Visitor Location Registers
  • Home Location Register (HLR)
    • Administrative information for all subscribers
      • IMSI number
      • actual phone number
      • permitted supplementary services
      • current location i.e. which VLR subscriber is currently registered with
      • parameters for authentication and ciphering
    • One HLR per GSM PLMN
  • Visitor Location Register (VLR)
    • Local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR
    • Selected information from the HLR for all mobiles in MSC area
    • Often bundled with MSC (VLR domain tied in with MSC coverage)
authentication center auc
Authentication Center (AUC)
  • Generate user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR
  • Authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface
equipment identity register eir
Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
  • Register GSM mobile stations and user rights
  • Stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked
short message service sms
Short Message Service (SMS)
  • Use “always on” data channel (i.e., independent of the voice traffic channels)
  • Operate independently and concurrently with voice operations.
  • Transfer a message of size up to 160 characters to and from the mobile station.
  • A SMS Service Centre (SM-SC) serves as the message switching centre.
  • An external short message entity (ESME, message entity,) sends SMS message to the SM-SC
short message service sms1

PC

Short Message Service (SMS)

GSM Network Subsystem

SMS-GMSC

PSDN

SM SC

BTS

BSC

SMS-IWMSC

MSC

VLR

ESMEs

HLR

  • SM-SC (Short Message Service Center): message switching centre
  • SMS-GMSC (Short Message Service Gateway MSC): SM-SCMSC
  • IWMSC (Interworking MSC): MSCSM-SC
  • ESME (external short message entity): a data terminal residing on external network
general packet radio service gprs
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
  • Improve GSM’s data transmission capacities (Circuit switching, low data rate 9.6 kbps)
  • 2.5G data service overlaid on an existing GSM network
    • Mobile station uses up to 8 timeslots (channels) for GPRS data connection from Mobile Station
    • Depending the coding, a transfer rate of up to 150 Kbps is possible,
  • GPRS provides packet mode transfer for applications with a selection of QoS parameters for service request;
slide25

Architecture of GPRS

IP andX.25

GPRS Mobile station (MS)

Gateway GPRS support node, GGSN

Serving GPRS support node, SGSN

Base Station Controller (BSC)

Mobile Service Switching Center (MSC)

Home Location Register, (HLR)

GR

GR:GPRS register,

a part of HRL

Equipment ID register (EIR) and Authentication center (AuC)

Visitor Location Register (VLR)

gprs mobile station
GPRS Mobile Station
  • Three Classes
    • Class A - simultaneous circuit switched (GSM) and packet switched (GPRS) traffic
    • Class B- supports both GSM and GPRS connections but not both at the same time. One call is suspended for the duration of the other
    • Class C - handless both GPRS or GSM but can only be connected to one at the same time
gprs network subsystem
GPRS Network Subsystem
  • Two new nodes introduced for packet data
    • Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
      • monitors GPRS users
      • handles security and access control
      • may be regarded as the packet switched equivalent of the circuit-switched MSC
    • Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
      • internetworking functionality
      • routes incoming data to correct SGSN
      • translates between different protocols and formats
gprs general packet radio service

IPSec

GPRS tunnel ON IP

GPRSGeneral Packet Radio Service
  • Forwards IP from mobile device to Internet or Intranet via GPRS backbone network

WWW

IPSec

Logical link over RAN

third generation mobile communication system 3g
Third-Generation Mobile Communication System (3G)
  • Frequency Band
    • 1885~ 2025MHz and 2110~2200MHz
  • Capable of providing high-speed data transmission
  • 384kbps for mobile; 2Mbps for stationary
  • Multimedia Service
3g standards
3G Standards

International Telecommunications Unit (ITU)

two major 3g systems
Two major 3G systems

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)

cdma2000

slide32

mobile

Legacy

Alternative

Applications &

signalling

Network

Access

Services *)

Network

SCP

Multimedia

CSCF

IP Networks

R-SGW *)

Mw

Mh

Ms

CAP

Mm

Packet Domain

Cx

HSS *)

CSCF

Gr

Mg

Mr

Gi

Gi

EIR

MRF

Gf

Gi

MGCF

T-SGW *)

Gc

Iu

BSS/

GERAN

TE

MT

Gb

GGSN

Mc

SGSN

Multi-Media

Domain

R

Um

Gi

A

Gn

Iu

Iu

PSTN/

UTRAN

TE

MT

MGW

MGW

Legacy/External

R

Uu

Nb

Iu

Mc

Mc

Nc

MSC

server

GMSC server

T-SGW *)

Circuit-Switched

Domain

CAP

CAP

D

C

Applications

HSS *)

R-SGW *)

& Services *)

Mh

UMTS Reference Model

umts utra
UMTS - UTRA
  • UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)
  • Radio Network Subsystem
    • Air interface
      • W-CDMA
    • Node B
      • equivalent of a BTS
    • Radio Network Controller
      • supports a number of Node Bs
      • equivalent of a BSC
slide34

3G, 2.5G and 2G

BSC

MSC

Fixed

Telephone

Infrastructure

GSM/GPRS BTS

SGSN

RNC

GGSN

Packet

Data

Infrastructure

UMTS BTS

Different radio access networks on the same core network

cdma2000

Radio Network

Circuit Domain

SS7

BTS

HLR

MSC/VLR

PSTN

BSC

GMSC

MSC/VLR

IWF

BTS

Packet Domain

BSC

Public

Public

IP Network

PDN

Internet

Internet

A Interface

PDSN/FA

RP Interface

BTS

AAA

Private

IP Network

Packet Data

HA

BSC

Public

Internet

BTS1

BTS1

BTS1

BTS1

cdma2000

Mobile IP functionality- Foreign agent (FA) and Home agent (HA)

Packet data service node (PDSN) – Equivalent of SSGN in GPRS

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)

future of wireless networks

GSM/UMTSWSP

CDMA WSP

PDSN/FA/HA/Firewall

GGSN/FA/HA/

Firewall

SGSN

PCF

MSC/RNC

BSC

BS

CGF

BS

BS

BS

Multi-mode terminal

w/MobileIP client

& IPSec Client

Future of Wireless Networks
  • Current mobility is based on single wireless technologies.
  • Future will allow automatic configuration for seamless roaming amongst various wireless technologies…and, hence, greater coverage (ubiquitous).

Enterprise

Home AAA Server

WLAN

Gateway,

HA, FA

Corporate LAN

Ethernet

VPN

Firewall

802.11 Access Points

IP Backbone/

Internet

WLAN

Gateway

& FA

Public

WLAN

Ethernet

802.11 Access Points

Mobile devices can connect to office networks anytime from anywhere….

mobile ip
Mobile IP
  • A standard proposed to solve the problem of Internet mobility
slide38

A Routing Example: 1.0.0.1  2.0.0.4

Ethernet B

Network Prefix = 2.0.0

Host 4

Host 3

High-Speed Fiber Backbone

Network Prefix = 3.0.0

Ethernet A

Network Prefix = 1.0.0

Router B

b

b

Host 2

Host 1

b

3.0.0.253

2.0.0.4

2.0.0.3

c

Router A

2.0.0.253

a

a

c

a

Host 5

1.0.0.1

1.0.0.2

c

3.0.0.254

1.0.0.254

b

b

3.0.0.252

4.0.0.5

Router C

Host 1’s routing table

4.0.0.252

Ethernet C

Network Prefix = 4.0.0

slide39

A Routing Example: 1.0.0.1  2.0.0.4

Ethernet B

Network Prefix = 2.0.0

Host 4

Host 3

High-Speed Fiber Backbone

Network Prefix = 3.0.0

Ethernet A

Network Prefix = 1.0.0

Router B

b

b

Host 2

Host 1

b

3.0.0.253

2.0.0.4

2.0.0.3

c

Router A

2.0.0.253

a

a

c

a

Host 5

1.0.0.1

1.0.0.2

c

3.0.0.254

1.0.0.254

b

b

3.0.0.252

Router A’s routing table

4.0.0.5

Router C

4.0.0.252

Ethernet C

Network Prefix = 4.0.0

slide40

A Routing Example: 1.0.0.1  2.0.0.4

Ethernet B

Network Prefix = 2.0.0

Host 4

Host 3

High-Speed Fiber Backbone

Network Prefix = 3.0.0

Ethernet A

Network Prefix = 1.0.0

Router B

b

b

Host 2

Host 1

b

3.0.0.253

2.0.0.4

2.0.0.3

c

Router A

2.0.0.253

a

a

c

a

Host 5

1.0.0.1

1.0.0.2

c

3.0.0.254

1.0.0.254

b

b

3.0.0.252

Router B’s routing table

4.0.0.5

Router C

4.0.0.252

Ethernet C

Network Prefix = 4.0.0

slide41

A Routing Example: 1.0.0.1  2.0.0.4

Ethernet B

Network Prefix = 2.0.0

Host 3

High-Speed Fiber Backbone

Network Prefix = 3.0.0

Ethernet A

Network Prefix = 1.0.0

?

Router B

b

Host 2

Host 1

b

3.0.0.253

2.0.0.3

c

Router A

2.0.0.253

a

a

c

a

Host 5

Host 4

1.0.0.1

1.0.0.2

c

3.0.0.254

1.0.0.254

b

b

b

3.0.0.252

Router B’s routing table

2.0.0.4

4.0.0.5

Router C

4.0.0.252

Ethernet C

Network Prefix = 4.0.0

mobility solution
Mobility Solution
  • Use two IP addresses:
    • a fixed home address
    • a care-of address that changes at each new point of attachment
entities and relationships
Entities and Relationships

Mobile Node “visiting” a foreign link

Mobile Node “at home”

Foreign Link

Foreign Agent

Home Link – the link having the same network prefix as the node’s IP address

Home Agent – a router on the mobile node’s home link.

Foreign Link

Foreign Agent

care of address
Care-of Address
  • Two conceptual types of care-of addresses
    • Foreign agent care-of address
      • IP address of the foreign agent
    • Collocated care-of address
      • An IP address temporarily assigned to a mobile node.
three mechanisms
Three Mechanisms
  • Agent Discovery
  • Registration
  • Routing
agent discovery
Agent Discovery
  • Periodically broadcasts Agent Advertisements
  • Move Detection
    • Fails to hear an advertisement from that agent within the specified Lifetime
    • Assign a foreign agent or collocated care-of-address
registration
Registration
  • Inform its home agent of its current care-of address
  • Deregister when it returns to its home link
registering care of address
Registering Care-of Address

The mobile node, with the assistance of a foreign agent, sends a Registration Request with the care-of address information.

2

1

Mobile Node “visiting” a foreign link

Home Agent

Foreign Agent

4

3

When the home agent receives this request, it adds the necessary information to its routing table, and sends a Registration Reply back to the mobile node.

deregistration
Deregistration

Mobile Node returns to its home link

1. (de-)Registration Request

Home Agent

2. (de-)Registration Reply

routing
Routing

Different Scenarios

  • Mobile Node → Correspondent Node
  • Correspondent Node → Mobile Node
how to send packets to a correspondent node
How to Send Packets to a Correspondent Node?

Foreign Agent

Home Agent

Mobile Node

Simply use the Correspondent’s IP address as the destination address.

Correspondent

how to send packets to a mobile node
How to Send Packets to a Mobile Node?

Foreign Agent

Home Agent

Mobile Node

Correspondent

tunneling to the care of address
Tunneling to the Care-of Address

Home Agent intercepts packets destined to the mobile node’s home address and tunnels them to the mobile node’s care-of address.

Mobile Node “visiting” a foreign link

Foreign Agent

Home Agent

Tunnel

Foreign Agent removes original packet from the tunnel and delivers the original packet to the mobile node over the foreign link.

ip in ip encapsulation

Payload

Payload

Header

Header

IP in IP Encapsulation

Ipsrc = Original Sender Ipdes = Destination’s Home Address

Original IP packet

The home agent inserts a new IP header, or tunnel header, in front of the IP header of any datagram addressed to the mobile node’s home address.

Ipsrc = Home Agent Ipdes = Mobile node’s Care-of Address

Encapsulating IP packet

Outer Header

Outer Payload

triangle routing
Triangle Routing

Mobile Node “visiting” a foreign link

Foreign Agent

Home Agent

Why doesn’t the mobile node inform the correspondent of its care-of address and have it tunnel directly to the mobile node?

Correspondent

mobile ipv6
Mobile IPv6
  • No Foreign Agent
  • Route Optimization
    • Use both tunneling and source routing to deliver packets to mobile nodes.
no foreign agent
No Foreign Agent
  • Enormous address space
    • Address size from 32 to 128 bits
    • Collocated care-of address
routing in mobile ipv6
Routing in Mobile IPv6

Correspondent which knows the care-of address

Mobile Node “visiting” a foreign link

Source Routing

Home Agent

Tunneling

Correspondent which does not know the care-of address

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Wireless LAN
  • Wireless WAN
  • Mobile IP