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VLAN Trunking protocol. CCNA Exploration Semester 3 Chapter 4. Topics. The role of VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) Operation of VTP Configure VTP on switches. LAN Design. Basic Switch Concepts. Wireless. VLANs. STP. Inter-VLAN routing. VTP. Semester 3. Purpose of VTP.

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vlan trunking protocol

VLAN Trunking protocol

CCNA Exploration Semester 3

Chapter 4

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

topics
Topics
  • The role of VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)
  • Operation of VTP
  • Configure VTP on switches

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semester 3

LAN Design

Basic Switch Concepts

Wireless

VLANs

STP

Inter-VLAN routing

VTP

Semester 3

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

purpose of vtp
Purpose of VTP
  • You can create VLANs on a switch.
  • What if you have the same VLANs on 10 linked switches? Or 100 linked switches?
  • Do you have to create the VLANs on every switch and allow them on each trunk?
  • VTP helps.
  • But you still have to assign access ports to VLANs on each switch.

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

vtp domain
VTP domain
  • Group of layer 2 switches sharing VLAN data.
  • Ends at router or layer 3 switch.
  • Switch can be linked but not part of domain.
  • Each switch can belong to only one domain.
  • Domain is defined by its name.
  • Proprietary to Cisco, so all switches in domain must be Cisco switches.

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vtp server
VTP server
  • One switch acts as server.
  • Create VLANs on this switch.
  • Information saved in vlan.dat.
  • Server sends VLAN information to client switches over active trunk links.
  • Add, delete, rename VLANs on server.
  • Default mode of switch is server.

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vtp client
VTP client
  • Client receives VLAN information from server.
  • Client switches then have the same VLANs as the server.
  • Client does not save VLAN information. It is held only in RAM and lost if switch is powered off.

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

vtp modes
VTP modes
  • Server – default mode. Sends VLAN information to other switches.
  • Client – receives VLAN information and forwards it to other switches.
  • Transparent – forward VTP traffic but do not originate or use it. They can have their own VLANs, not shared with other switches.

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

vtp defaults
VTP defaults
  • Version 1. (Versions 2 and 3 also exist.)
  • VTP domain name is not set.
  • VTP mode server
  • One active VLAN, VLAN 1
  • Configuration revision number 0
  • Any switches added to a domain should be in the default condition or they may send unwanted information to other switches.

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show vtp status
Show vtp status
  • VTP Version
  • Maximum VLANs Supported
  • Number of Existing VLANs
  • VTP Operating Mode- server, client, or transparent.
  • VTP Domain Name
  • VTP Pruning Mode
  • VTP V2 Mode (disabled by default)
  • VTP Traps Generation
  • MD5 Digest (checksum of VTP configuration)
  • Configuration Last Modified

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

vtp advertisements
VTP advertisements
  • Consist of VTP header and VTP message
  • Encapsulated inside Ethernet frame with tag to pass over trunk link.
  • Destination MAC address is multicast address 01-00-0C-CC-CC-CC

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

vtp message header
VTP message header
  • Domain name
  • Domain name length
  • Version - VTP 1 or VTP 2, on Cisco 2960 switch.
  • Configuration revision number
  • Other fields, depending on type of message.

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

configuration revision number
Configuration revision number
  • 32-bit number.
  • Default value is 0.
  • It is incremented each time a VLAN is added or removed.
  • Reset to 0 is domain name changes.
  • Switch uses it to see if information is more recent that what it already holds.

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summary advertisement
Summary advertisement
  • Sent immediately after a change is made, with updated revision number.
  • Sent every 5 minutes by servers and clients to check on current VTP configuration revision number.
  • Contains the VTP domain name, the current revision number, and other VTP configuration details.

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vtp summary advertisement
VTP Summary advertisement
  • A switch receives a summary advertisement.
  • Compares domain name to its own domain name.
  • If name is different, the switch ignores the packet.
  • If the name is the same, the switch compares the revision number to its own revision number.
  • Number lower or equal, ignored the packet.
  • Number higher, sends an advertisement request.

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request advertisement
Request Advertisement

Sent by client to server if:

  • The VTP domain name has been changed
  • The switch receives a summary advertisement with a higher configuration revision number than its own
  • A subset advertisement message is missed for some reason
  • The switch has been reset

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subset advertisement
Subset advertisement
  • Contains VLAN information. Several may be needed if there is a lot of information.
  • Sent by server in response to a request or after:
    • Creating or deleting a VLAN
    • Suspending or activating a VLAN
    • Changing the name of a VLAN
    • Changing the MTU of a VLAN

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subset advertisement1
Subset advertisement

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subset advertisement vlan info
Subset advertisement VLAN info

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pros and cons
Pros and cons
  • Small network – don’t bother with VTP.
  • Big network – good for consistency and easier to make changes.
  • Server switches need lots of flash memory, clients do not.
  • Redundancy – don’t have everything on one server switch.
  • Problems from large domains.
  • Extreme care when adding a switch.

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why transparent
Why transparent?
  • Put a switch in transparent mode if it has local VLANs that are not on other switches.
  • The other switches do not need to know about them.

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

vtp pruning
VTP pruning
  • Disabled by default
  • Enable it on one server in domain.
  • Stops VLAN traffic from being sent on links that do not lead to devices on that VLAN.
  • Cuts down on traffic on trunk links.

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domain names and passwords
Domain names and passwords
  • Configure a domain name on the first server switch. The other switches will learn it.
  • If you configure it on other switches, check that it is exactly the same. It is case sensitive.
  • If you use a password then it must be exactly the same on all switches.

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versions
Versions
  • VTP version 1 is used by default on Catalyst switches, but they can use version 2.
  • If you configure version 2 on one switch then the other switches should learn the new version and change to it.
  • If a switch is not capable of running version 2 then it will not exchange advertisements.

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College

configure vtp
Configure VTP
  • Configure VTP with a domain name before creating VLANs on the server.
  • Existing VLANs are removed when you start to configure VTP.
  • Check that links are trunk links.
  • Configure client switches to client mode.

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commands on server
Commands on server
  • SW1(config)#vtp domain cisco1
  • SW1(config)#vtp password cisco
  • (Password is optional)
  • Server mode is default, but if it was changed:
  • SW1(config)#vtp mode server
  • Version 1 is default, but command is:
  • SW1(config)#vtp version 1

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commands on server1
Commands on server
  • Create VLANs
  • Check that link is a trunk.
  • Check VTP operation
  • SW1# show vtp status
  • Assign switch ports to VLANs.

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client configuration
Client configuration
  • SW2(config)#vtp mode client
  • Check that link is a trunk.
  • Check VTP operation
  • SW2# show vtp status
  • Assign switch ports to VLANs.

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things to check
Things to check
  • VTP Version. It needs to be the same on all switches in the domain.
  • Domain name. Is it exactly the same on all switches?
  • VTP Password if any. Is it exactly the same on all switches?
  • Check that there is at least one server. Better to have at least two.
  • If you recently added a new switch, had its revision number been set to 0?

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the end
The End

S Ward Abingdon and Witney College