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Fusions:. Rock and the World. Fusion. As rock dominates popular music in U.S. and Europe, other types of music have to Reject influence Incorporate rock into national or established styles = fusion. Rock Fusions - Types. Fusion popular mostly in country of native music

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Rock and the World

  • As rock dominates popular music in U.S. and Europe, other types of music have to
    • Reject influence
    • Incorporate rock into national or established styles
      • = fusion
rock fusions types
Rock Fusions - Types
  • Fusion popular mostly in country of native music
    • Ex. Yoruban Highlife
  • Popularity outside of native country
  • Become part of rock mainstream
jazz rock fusion
Jazz-Rock Fusion
  • Jazz influence on solos, individual songs
  • Bands or artists whose sound is heavily influenced by jazz
    • Ex: Chicago, Blood, Sweat and Tears
  • Jazz artists incorporate rock beats, ensembles into modern jazz
miles davis
Miles Davis
  • Jazz trumpeter
  • Innovator of many different jazz styles
    • Bebop
    • Cool jazz
    • Free jazz
  • Album Bitches’ Brew primary testament of jazz-rock fusion
    • Ex: Pharoah’s Dance
world music fusions
World music fusions
  • “World music” popular in U.S. from early 20th c.
    • Afro - Cuban dances: mambo, rhumba
    • Brazilian: samba
      • Sixteen-beat style beat
      • Complicated rhythmic interplay between parts
latin rock fusion
Latin-Rock fusion
  • Little influence beyond Latin rhythms, percussion
  • More directly influences jazz, blues, R&B
  • Influence on rock delayed until 1960s
carlos santana 1947
Carlos Santana (1947- )
  • Mexican-born guitarist
  • Forms Santana Blues Band in San Francisco in 1966
    • Fused blues and Afro-Cuban rhythms
    • Heavy Latin flavor
santana style characteristics
Santana - Style characteristics
  • Rhythmic layering
    • Two conga drummers + auxiliary Latin percussion + rock drummer
    • Drums frequently create cross-rhythms, polyrhythms
  • Little to no emphasis on backbeat
  • Organ/electric keyboards integral part of sound
  • Lyrics sometimes in Spanish
santana oye como va
Santana - Oye Como Va
  • Cover of mambo by Tito Puente
  • Opening organ riff – Latin rhythms
  • As is bass riff – but don’t coincide
  • Guitar riff laid over that
    • Distortion, pedal effects
    • Riff drops out under vocals
    • Forms basis for solos, bridges


  • Most popular world music/rock fusion
  • imported from Jamaica in early 70s
  • Huge influence on rock, popular music
roots of reggae
Roots of Reggae
  • Jamaican musicians in late ‘50s-’60s start to play American R&B
  • Some bands fuse R&B and jump blues with mento
    • Jamaican folk music
  • Resulting fusion = ska
  • 4 beat style beat, like swing
  • Accent on afterbeats = in between beats (1 and 2 and3 and4 and)
    • Creates overall sense of delay
  • Little emphasis on the bass
derrick morgan lover boy
Derrick Morgan - Lover Boy
  • Most ska includes horns
    • Influenced by Mexican Mariachi
  • Often R&B influenced sax solos
  • Another example – Prince Buster – “Madness”
rock steady
Rock Steady
  • Emerges c. 1965
  • Ska influenced by Stax soul
    • Gospel influence, call-and-response vocals
    • Heavier bass lines
  • Slower, more flexible rhythmically
  • Example – Derrick Morgan, “Tougher than Tough”
jamaican rock fusion in uk
Jamaican rock fusion in UK
  • First: UK hit My Boy Lollipop - Millie Small (1963)
    • produced by Chris Johnson, founder of Island Records
  • More exposure on radio than in Jamaica
  • Ska and rock steady disseminated via “sound systems”
toasting and dubbing
Toasting and Dubbing
  • Sound system DJs lay down rhythmic patter over intro to ska and rock steady records

= toasting

  • DJs start to manipulate record to extend, alter intro
    • dubbing
  • Eventually dubs(heavily produced remixes of singles or new instrumentals) recorded in studio
  • From Toots and the Maytals “Do the Reggay”
  • Slow, loping tempo
  • Greater rhythmic complexity than rock steady
    • Supported by syncopated bass riffs
    • normally avoid first beat of bar
popularity of reggae
Popularity of Reggae
  • Reggae rhythms arrived in U.S., U.K. by 1970
      • Johnny Nash, I Can See Clearly Now
      • Paul Simon, Mother and Child Reunion
  • First Jamaican reggae star Jimmy Cliff
    • Several modest hits in U.K.
    • Stars in 1972 film The Harder They Come
    • Cult hit in the U.S.
bob marley 1945 81
Bob Marley (1945-81)
  • Lead singer of the Wailers
  • First album, Catch a Fire, first real reggae album.
    • Second – Burnin’ – hit in U.S.
    • Exposure from Clapton’s cover of “I Shot The Sheriff”
bob marley characteristics
Bob Marley - Characteristics
  • Lyrics political/social commentary
    • Rastafarianism
    • Social justice
  • Keyboards crucial part of ensemble
  • Jamaican percussion plays prominent role
  • Moderate to slow tempos
bob marley and the wailers get up stand up
Bob Marley and the Wailers - Get Up, Stand Up
  • Very socially conscious lyrics
  • Several layers of rhythmic activity
    • Bass riff (different in verse, refrain)
    • Ska beat in cymbal, guiro
    • Keyboard
    • Drums (rock beat)
  • Thick, dense texture
  • Primary interest rhythmic
reggae influence
Reggae - Influence
  • Reggae-inspired hits common in late 70s-early 80s: Paul Simon, Blondie, Stevie Wonder, Police
  • Crucial component of late ‘70s-early ‘80s post-punk new wave