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UNIT 4: RESCUE, VENTILATION, SUPPORT, AND OVERHAUL. OBJECTIVES. The students will:. Select appropriate ventilation tactics based on identified ventilation principles and tactical considerations.

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objectives
OBJECTIVES

The students will:

  • Select appropriate ventilation tactics based on identified ventilation principles and tactical considerations.
  • Using the command sequence cycle, develop a ventilation action plan based on the incident presented.
  • Select appropriate rescue tactics based on identified rescue principles and tactical considerations.
objectives cont d
OBJECTIVES (cont'd)
  • Using the command sequence cycle, develop a rescue action plan based on the incident presented.
  • Understand the incident support activities that are necessary to promote safe fireground operations before, during, and after a fire.
  • Understand the necessary safe practices that need to be implemented during overhaul operations.
rescue1
RESCUE

Rescue is a systematic process used to locate, protect, and remove occupants and fire victims safely from a structure and convey them to a place of safety.

rescue tactics
RESCUE TACTICS
  • Conduct primary search
  • Conduct secondary search
  • Provide for rescued occupants
conduct primary search
CONDUCT PRIMARY SEARCH
  • Rapid search of all areas involved in or exposed to fire, if they can be entered, to verify removal and/or safety of occupants.
  • Key elements.
  • Removal of victims.
  • Transmit "ALL CLEAR."
conduct secondary search
CONDUCT SECONDARY SEARCH
  • Extremely thorough search of interior fire area after initial fire control, ventilation, and interior lighting are completed, to ensure that there is no possibility of victims remaining undiscovered.
  • Key elements.
provide for rescued occupants
PROVIDE FOR RESCUED OCCUPANTS
  • Victim removal paths
  • Move victims to triage area
  • Treat victims
  • Transport victims
  • Provide for uninjured, displaced persons
tactical sizeup for rescue
TACTICAL SIZEUP FOR RESCUE
  • Sizeup factors
    • Stage of fire development
    • Number, location, and condition of victims; effect of fire on victims
    • Capability of onscene companies
  • Sizeup questions
support for rescue operations
SUPPORT FOR RESCUE OPERATIONS
  • Timing
  • Protective lines
  • Entry
  • Ventilation
  • Laddering
  • Confinement/Extinguishment
rescue coordination issues
RESCUE COORDINATION ISSUES
  • Teamwork, organization, and good communication.
  • Rapid ventilation.
  • Keep fire away from people and protect escape routes with hoselines.
  • Laddering to ventilate and advance protective hoselines.
sizeup report of fireground conditions
SIZEUP REPORT OF FIREGROUND CONDITIONS
  • Initial report

To be given immediately upon arrival on location

  • Exact location and conditions as observed
    • Nothing showing
    • Size of structure--stories and dimension--type of construction--occupied or vacant
    • Smoke/Fire--location and density
    • Status of occupants--if known
    • Exposures--Sides A, B, C, D, or other
    • Engine __ is establishing ___ Street Command.
sizeup report of fireground conditions cont d
SIZEUP REPORT OF FIREGROUND CONDITIONS (cont'd)
  • Subsequent report

Information not immediately reported and/or information developed upon investigation. To be given ASAP or within 5 minutes.

  • Progress report

To be given by the Incident Commander (IC) every 10 minutes until fire is under control.

command sequence rescue action plan
COMMAND SEQUENCE RESCUE ACTION PLAN

Command Sequence # 4

450 C St.

slide21

N

Walk-around

450 C Street

Command Sequence # 4

Side A

Three-story apartment building, 50'x 125'. Occupied.

slide22

Walk-around

450 C Street

Command Sequence # 4

Side B

Side A

Sides A and B

slide23

Walk-around

450 C Street

Command Sequence # 4

Side B

slide24

Walk-around

450 C Street

Command Sequence # 4

Side B

Side C

Sides B and C

slide25

Walk-around

450 C Street

Command Sequence # 4

Side D

Side C

Sides C and D

slide26

Walk-around

450 C Street

Command Sequence # 4

Side D

Side A

Sides A and D

command sequence 4 1st alarm resources
COMMAND SEQUENCE # 41ST ALARM RESOURCES
  • Engine 1
  • Engine 2
  • Engine 3
  • Truck 1
  • Squad 1
  • Battalion Chief 1
    • All companies staffed with four firefighters
    • Battalion Chief 1: 30-minute response
slide28

N

450 C Street

Command Sequence # 4

Wednesday

6AM

Wind 15 MPH

Out of the West

73ºF

Side A

450 C Street

Storage

Room

Fire is located first floor storage room, center building.

Report of people trapped on upper floors.

slide29

N

Side C

Side B

Side D

Side A

450 C Street

Parking

what is the situation sizeup
WHAT IS THE SITUATION(SIZEUP)

Sizeup report example:

  • On location at 450 C Street, three-story brick apartment building, 50' x 125', wood-frame construction, occupied.
  • Medium to heavy smoke showing all floors.
  • Many occupants reported still in the building.
  • Exposure Side B is a similar attached apartment building.
  • No other immediate exposures.
  • Engine 1 is establishing C Street Command.
what can be accomplished incident objectives
WHAT CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED?INCIDENT OBJECTIVES
  • Safe removal of occupants
  • Contain and control fire to room/building of origin
what needs to be done incident strategy ies
WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE?INCIDENT STRATEGY(IES)
  • Rescue
  • Confinement/Extinguishment
  • Ventilation
  • Special equipment
how are you going to do it incident tactics
HOW ARE YOU GOING TO DO IT?INCIDENT TACTICS
  • Rescue
    • Deploy search and rescue groups to remove occupants
    • Deploy one 1-3/4-inch hoseline Side A first floor for stairwell protection
  • Confinement/Extinguishment
    • Deploy 1-3/4-inch hoseline to Side A first floor for fire confinement/extinguishment
    • Deploy one 1-3/4-inch hoseline to Side C first floor for fire confinement/extinguishment
how are you going to do it incident tactics cont d
HOW ARE YOU GOING TO DO IT?INCIDENT TACTICS (cont'd)
  • Ventilate
    • Ventilate stairwells to support occupant removal
    • Vent roof apertures
    • Horizontal ventilation all floors for fire confinement
  • Special equipment
  • Employ imaging camera to support search and rescue groups
implement the rescue action plan
IMPLEMENT THE RESCUE ACTION PLAN

Communicate all assignments clearly to all resources operating on the incident.

evaluate the rescue action plan
EVALUATE THE RESCUE ACTION PLAN
  • Evaluate progress every 10 minutes.
  • Obtain feedback reports from resources operating on the incident.
slide39

Walk-around

122 M Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 1

Side A

122 M Street

Side D

Sides A and D

slide40

Side B

Walk-around

122 M Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 1

slide41

Side C

Walk-around

122 M Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 1

slide42

Exposure C-1

Side C

Walk-around

122 M Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 1

slide43

Exposure C-2

Side D

Walk-around

122 M Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 1

activity 4 1 scenario 1 1st alarm resources
ACTIVITY 4.1 SCENARIO 1 1ST ALARM RESOURCES
  • Engine 1
  • Engine 2
  • Engine 3
  • Truck 1
  • Squad 1
  • Battalion Chief 1
    • All companies staffed with four firefighters
    • Battalion Chief 1: 30-minute response
slide45

122 M Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 1

Side C

Report of two occupants trapped third floor front bedroom Side C.

slide46

N

Exposure C1

Exposure C2

Side C

Side B

Side D

Parking

122 M Street

Side A

slide47

Third Floor

Side C

45'

BR 1

Ba

K

25'

LR

BR 2

Side D

Side B

Side A

122 M Street

slide48

Activity 4.1

Scenario 2

700 Block of 25th Street

slide49

Walk-around

700 Block

25th Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 2

Side A

25th Street

slide50

Walk-around

700 Block

25th Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 2

Side A

Side B

Side B

Side A

Sides A and B

slide51

Side C

Side B

Walk-around

700 Block

25th Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 2

Sides B and C

activity 4 1 scenario 2 1st alarm resources
ACTIVITY 4.1 SCENARIO 2 1ST ALARM RESOURCES
  • Engine 1
  • Engine 2
  • Engine 3
  • Truck 1
  • Squad 1
  • Battalion Chief 1
    • All companies staffed with four firefighters
    • Battalion Chief 1: 30-minute response
slide53

Side A

712 25th Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 2

Exp.

B-1

Exp.

D-1

25th Street

Report of two occupants trapped 2nd floor front bedroom. Report of two children trapped 2nd floor rear bedroom. Report of an invalid 2nd floor front bedroom, B-1 exposure. No communications with occupants in exposure D-1.

slide54

First Floor

7 Row houses

N

21'

Side C

K

DR

DR

K

K

DR

DR

K

K

DR

DR

K

K

DR

45'

LR

LR

LR

LR

LR

LR

LR

Side A

712 25th Street

slide55

N

Second Floor

7 Row houses

Side C

BR

BR

BR

BR

BR

BR

BR

Ba

Ba

Ba

Ba

Ba

Ba

Ba

Br

Br

Br

Br

Br

Br

Br

Side A

712 25th Street

slide56

Activity 4.1

Scenario 3

356 E Street

slide57

Side A

356 E Street

Walk-around

356 E Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 3

slide58

Side A

Side B

Walk-around

356 E Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 3

Sides A and B

slide59

Sides B and C

Side C

Side B

Walk-around

356 E Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 3

slide60

Side D

Side C

Walk-around

356 E Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 3

Sides C and D

activity 4 1 scenario 3 1st alarm resources
ACTIVITY 4.1 SCENARIO 3 1ST ALARM RESOURCES
  • Engine 1
  • Engine 2
  • Engine 3
  • Truck 1
  • Squad 1
  • Battalion Chief 1
    • All companies staffed with four firefighters
    • Battalion Chief 1: 30-minute response
slide62

356 E Street

Activity 4.1

Scenario 3

Side D

Side A

Sides A and D

Heavy fire second floor, side D. 14 occupants per floor. Report of many occupants unaccounted for.

slide63

N

Side C

Balcony

Balcony

Second Floor

Third Floor

Side D

Side B

Lobby

First Floor

356 E Street

Side A

ventilation cont d
VENTILATION (cont'd)

A planned, systematic procedure for reducing, redirecting, or removing heat, smoke, and fire gases from a structure and replacing them with clean, fresh air.

ventilation principles
VENTILATION PRINCIPLES
  • Ventilation for life safety
  • Ventilation for incident stabilization
  • Ventilation for property conservation
  • Ventilation to support other tactical operations
determine where ventilation is needed
DETERMINE WHERE VENTILATION IS NEEDED
  • Planned, systematic approach
  • General location priorities
select appropriate tactics s
SELECT APPROPRIATE TACTICS(S)
  • Horizontal ventilation
  • Vertical ventilation
  • A combination
ventilation methods
VENTILATION METHODS
  • Natural ventilation
  • Self-ventilation
  • Forced (mechanical) ventilation
types of forced ventilation
TYPES OF FORCED VENTILATION
  • Fog streams
  • Building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system
  • Negative pressure
  • Positive pressure
slide74

SUPPORT FOR VENTILATION

  • Proper apparatus placement
  • Proper hoseline placement
  • Entry
  • Selection and placement of ladders
  • Lighting
  • Breathing air
ventilation hazards
VENTILATION HAZARDS
  • Opening below fire or at same level
  • Opening too soon
  • Opening in wrong place
  • Opening into blind attic
  • Insufficient opening
  • Delayed too long
slide76

Wrong

Way

Right

Way

ventilation coordination issues
VENTILATION COORDINATION ISSUES
  • With rescue.
  • With entry and fire attack.
  • Hoselines should not hinder ventilation.
rescue and ventilation
RESCUE AND VENTILATION

Command Sequence # 5

sizeup report of fireground conditions1
SIZEUP REPORT OF FIREGROUND CONDITIONS
  • Initial report

To be given immediately upon arrival on location

  • Exact location and conditions as observed
    • Nothing showing
    • Size of structure--stories and dimensions-- type of construction--occupied or vacant
    • Smoke/Fire--location and density
    • Status of occupants--if known
    • Exposures--Sides A, B, C, D, or other
    • Engine __ is establishing ___ Street Command.
sizeup report of fireground conditions cont d1
SIZEUP REPORT OF FIREGROUND CONDITIONS (cont'd)
  • Subsequent report

Information not immediately reported and/or information developed upon investigation. To be given ASAP or within 5 minutes.

  • Progress report

To be given by the IC every 10 minutes until fire is under control.

command sequence rescue ventilation action plan
COMMAND SEQUENCE RESCUE VENTILATIONACTION PLAN

Command Sequence # 5

346 30th Street

slide86

N

Walk-around

346 30th Street

Command Sequence # 5

Side A

346 30th Street

Burns Nursing Home, one-story, 75' X 250', ordinary construction. Occupied.

slide87

Walk-around

346 30th Street

Command Sequence # 5

Side A

Burns Nursing Home

slide88

Walk-around

346 30th Street

Command Sequence # 5

Side A

Burns Nursing Home

slide89

Walk-around

346 30th Street

Command Sequence # 5

Side B

Burns Nursing Home

slide90

Walk-around

346 30th Street

Command Sequence # 5

Side B and C

Side C

Side B

Burns Nursing Home