Logical Fallacies. How people try to use logic to confuse and trick you!. Logical Fallacies are considered propaganda. Propaganda is the manipulation and control of language. It transmits more than one message, depending on what the recipient wishes to hear or is told to hear.
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How people try to use logic to confuse and trick you!
1. Hasty Generalization: The writer bases the argument on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence, or an isolated example.
2. Non Sequitur (“it doesn’t follow”): The writer’s conclusion is not necessarily a logical result of the facts.
3. Begging the Question (also known as circular reasoning): The writer presents as truth what is supposed to be proven by the argument (assumes point is already accepted as a fact) .
4. Red Herring: The writer introduces an irrelevant point to divert the readers’ attention from the main issue. This term originates from the old tactic used by escaped prisoners, of dragging a smoked herring, a strong-smelling fish, across their trail to confuse tracking dogs by making them follow the wrong scent.
5. Argument Ad Hominem (“To the man”): The writer attacks the opponent’s character rather than the opponent’s argument.
6. Argument Ad Populum (“To the people”): The writer evades the issues by appealing to reader’s emotional reactions to certain subjects. Instead of arguing the facts of an issue, the writer might play on the readers’ responses to certain ideas or words. The writer uses words such as “communism,” “fascism,” or “radical” to get a negative response from a reader and use words such as “God,” “country,” or “liberty” to get a positive response from a reader. The idea being to compliment people, making them feel important , intelligent or good.
7. Either/or: The writer tries to convince the readers that there are only two sides to an issue – one right, one wrong.
8. Hypostatization: The writer uses an abstract concept as if it were a concrete reality.
9. Bandwagon Appeal: The writer tries to validate a point by intimating that “everyone else believes in this.” Such a tactic evades discussion of the issue itself.
10. Card Stacking: This term comes from stacking a deck of cards in your favor. Card stacking is used to slant a message. Key words or unfavorable statistics may be omitted in an ad or commercial, leading to a series of half-truths.
11. Faulty Analogy: The writer uses an extended comparison as proof of a point. Look closely at all extended comparisons and metaphors to see if the two things being compared are really similar. Although a compelling analogy might suggest similarities, it alone cannot prove anything.
12. Quick Fix: The writer leans too heavily on catchy phrases or empty slogans. A clever turn-of-phrase may grab one’s attention, but it may lose its persuasiveness when scrutinized closely.
13. Faulty Cause / Effect: A cause and effect relationship that might not be true.
1. Repetition: Repeat, repeat, repeat
2. Nostalgia: Forget the bad parts of the past; only remember the good.
3. Beautiful People: Use good-looking models in ads to suggest that we’ll look like the models if we buy the product.
4. Bandwagon: Everybody is doing it!
5. Scientific Evidence: Use the paraphernalia of science (charts, graphs, etc.) to “prove” something.
6. Maybe: Exaggerated or outrageous claims are commonly preceded by “maybe,” “might,” or “could.”
7. Symbols: Designs, places, music, etc. , symbolizing tradition, nationalism, power, religion, sex, family, or any concept with emotional concept.
8. Testimonials: Use famous people to sell a product (voice-overs).
9. Humor: Make them laugh to persuade.
10. Name-calling: Direct or Indirect, audiences love it.
1. Self-preservation: desire to survive, need of food, clothing, shelter, oxygen, and rest. Security and safety… free from worries.
2. Pride: feeling of personal worth and accomplishment. Work hard, build morale and win approval.
3. Personal Enjoyment: desire for beauty, comfort, and recreation.
4. Love and Affection: need to give and receive love, to have friends, close family ties, to promote common good.
5. Acquisition and Saving: appeal to the pocketbook, to a desire for ownership.
6. Adventure and Curiosity: need for exploration, reading, watching, daydreaming.
7. Loyalty: faithfulness to nation (patriotism), school (school spirit), city and friends and family.
8. Imitation: need to conform with dress, hair styles, slang, actions, motivated by imitation of hero or movie star.
9. Reverence: desire to “look up” to someone; hero worship, tradition, worship or supreme being.
10. Creating: urge to invent, build, make, plant, paint, organize, etc.