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DYSLIPIDEMIA IN ADULTS WITH DIABETES*. 2003 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada. *Updated in 2006. Leiter LA, et al for the CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes . 2006;30:230-240 . DYSLIPIDEMIA.

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dyslipidemia in adults with diabetes

DYSLIPIDEMIA IN ADULTS WITH DIABETES*

2003 Clinical Practice Guidelines

for the Prevention and Management

of Diabetes in Canada

*Updated in 2006. Leiter LA, et al for the CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240.

dyslipidemia
DYSLIPIDEMIA
  • Diabetes is associated with high risk for vascular disease, and aggressive lipid management is generally necessary. Attention to the full lipid profile is required, as hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol are particularly common.
  • All patients should be assessed for their risk of a vascular event. Most patients with diabetes are at high risk. Younger patients with a shorter duration of diabetes and without other risk factors and without complications of diabetes would be considered at lower risk.

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240.

dyslipidemia3
DYSLIPIDEMIA
  • Achieving an LDL-C of <=2.0 mmol/L is the primary goal of therapy.
  • Once the LDL-C goal has been attained, consideration to achieving the secondary target of an TC/HDL-C ratio of <4.0.
  • The vast majority of patients with be able to attain the LDL-C goal on statin therapy.
  • Although not formal goals of therapy, optimal TG is <1.5 mmol/L and apo B is 0.9 g/L
  • Lifestyle modification should be seen as an important adjunct to, not substitution for, pharmacologic therapy.

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia4
DYSLIPIDEMIA
  • Effective risk reduction requires a multifaceted approach targeting all risk factors:

- Obesity

- Hypertension

- Hyperglycemia

- Dsylipidemia

- Microalbuminuria

- Smoking

- Sedentary lifestyle

- Diet

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

first line rx for dyslipidemia
FIRST-LINE Rx FOR DYSLIPIDEMIA
  • Statins are the drugs of choice to lower LDL-C.
  • At higher doses, statins have modest TG-lowering effects and HDL-C-raising effects:
    • - atorvastatin (Lipitor)
    • - fluvastatin (Lescol)
    • - lovastatin (Mevachor and generic)
    • - pravastatin (Pravachol and generic)
    • - rosuvastatin (Crestor)
    • - simvastatin (Zocor and generic)

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

lipid targets
LIPID TARGETS

LIPID TARGETS FOR ADULTS WITH DM AT HIGH RISK FOR CVD

Clinical judgment should be used to decide whether additional LDL-C lowering is required for patients with an on-treatment LDL-C of 2.0 to 2.5 mmol/L.

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

other drugs for dyslipidemia
OTHER DRUGS FOR DYSLIPIDEMIA

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia recommendations
DYSLIPIDEMIA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • People with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should be encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle to lower their risk of CVD. This entails adopting healthy eating habits, achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, engaging in regular physical activity and smoking cessation [Grade D, Consensus].

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia recommendations9
DYSLIPIDEMIA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • A fasting lipid profile (TC, HDL-C, TG and calculated LDL-C) should be conducted at the time of diagnosis of diabetes and then every 1 to 3 years as clinically indicated. More frequent testing should be done if treatment for dyslipidemia is initiated [Grade D, Consensus].

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia recommendations10
DYSLIPIDEMIA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Most adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes should be considered at high risk for vascular disease [Grade A, Level 1, Level 2]. The exceptions are younger adults with shorter duration of disease and without complications of diabetes (including established CVD) and without other CVD risk factors [Grade A, Level 1]. A computerized risk engine (e.g. UKPDS risk engine, Cardiovascular Life Expectancy Model) can be used to estimate vascular risk [Grade D, Consensus].

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia recommendations11
DYSLIPIDEMIA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Adults at high risk of a vascular event should be treated with a statin to achieve an LDL-C <=2.0 mmol/L [Grade A, Level 1, Level 2]. Clinical judgment should be used to determine whether additional LDL-C lowering is required for adults with an on-treatment LDL-C of 2.0 to 2.5 mmol/L [Grade D, Consensus].

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia recommendations12
DYSLIPIDEMIA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • In adults, the primary target of therapy is LDL-C [Grade A, Level 1, Level 2]; the secondary target is TC/HDL-C ratio [Grade D, Consensus].

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia recommendations13
DYSLIPIDEMIA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • In adults, if the TC/HDL-C ratio is >=4.0, consider strategies to achieve a TC/HDL-C ratio of <4.0 [Grade D, Consensus], such as improved glycemic control, intensification of lifestyle (weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation) and, if necessary, pharmacologic interventions [Grade D, Consensus].

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia recommendations14
DYSLIPIDEMIA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • In adults with serum TG >10.0 mmol/L despite best efforts at optimal glycemic control and other lifestyle interventions (e.g. weight loss, restriction of refined carbohydrates and alcohol), a fibrate should be prescribed to reduce the risk of pancreatitis [Grade D, Consensus]. For those with moderate hyper-TG (4.5 to 10.0 mmol/L), either a statin or fibrate can be attempted as first-line therapy, with the addition of a second lipid-lowering agent of a different class if target lipid levels are not achieved after 4 to 6 months on monotherapy [Grade D, Consensus].

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia recommendations15
DYSLIPIDEMIA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • For adult patients not at target(s), despite optimally dosed first-line therapy as described above, combination therapy can be considered. Although there are as yet no completed trials demonstrating clinical outcomes in adults receiving combination therapy, pharmacologic treatment options include (listed in alphabetical order):

- Statin plus ezetimibe [Grade B, Level 2]

- Statin plus fibrate [Grade B, Level 2, Level 3]

- Statin plus niacin [Grade B, Level 2]

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240

dyslipidemia recommendations16
DYSLIPIDEMIA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • In adults, plasma apo B can be measured, at the physician’s discretion, in addition to LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio, to monitor adequacy of lipid-lowering therapy in the high-risk patient [Grade D, Consensus]. Target apo B should be 0.9 g/L [Grade D, Consensus].

CDA CPG Expert Committee. Can J Diabetes. 2006;30:230-240