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Chapter 19. Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750. I. Ottoman Empire to 1750. A. Expansion and Frontiers NW. Anatolia - Turkish nomad horsemen, founder Osman Gallipoli key link - Asia/Europe Army -Turkish cavalry and gunpowder

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Chapter 19

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chapter 19

Chapter 19

Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750

i ottoman empire to 1750
I. Ottoman Empire to 1750

A. Expansion and Frontiers

  • NW. Anatolia - Turkish nomad horsemen, founder Osman
  • Gallipoli key link - Asia/Europe
  • Army -Turkish cavalry and gunpowder
  • 1402 - most of Anatolia/SE Europe under Ottoman control, setback by Mongol Timur
  • 1453 - Sultan Mehmed II captured Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul
  • 1514 - Battle of Chaldiran, Selim I ended Safavid threat, soon conquered Mamluk Egypt
  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) – further expansion into S/E Europe, failed siege of Vienna in 1529
  • Conflict with Venice over control of Mediterranean
b central institutions
B. Central Institutions
  • Balkans -Christian POW’s forced to fight in army
  • Janissaries – convert to Islam, foot soldiers, guns
  • devshirme – new system imposed a regular levy on male children in Christian villages
  • Opportunities – education
  • Cosmopolitan empire – language and military
  • Askeri – military/bureaucracy, no taxes, paid by sultan
  • 1500s – conflict with Charles V and Phillip II
  • 1580 - capture Cyprus from Venice
  • Cavalrymen maintained order, collected taxes, of rural areas of the empire
  • Central gov. seldom involved with subjects; justice sought in religious courts
c crisis of the military state 1585 1650
C. Crisis of the Military State 1585-1650
  • Cavalry shrank, firearms/cannons - Janissaries grew in importance
  • Mid-16thC. Sultan reduced landholding of cavalry to pay for janissaries
  • Late-16thC. problems with silver, lack of Ottoman sultans’ response
  • Students/professionals in madrasas hard to live with limited endowment
  • Government levied emergency surtaxes to pay jan./bur. -added partially trained soldiers to army who were out of work once the summer campaigns ended.
  • Revolts/banditry resulted in 1590-1610; former cavalrymen, peasants, and short term soldiers, and impoverished students
  • Janissaries started to marry and engage in business; previously not allowed
d economic change and growing weakness 1650 1750
D. Economic Change and Growing weakness 1650-1750
  • Sultans – hostages, fratricide
  • Sultan’s mother/chief Eunuch
  • Grand viziers
  • (Devshirme discontinued) Janissaries power grew/positions hereditary
  • Became involved in crafts/trading
  • Land grants for service stopped; tax farming instead
  • Imperial government came to rely on provincial governors/wealthy men for administration of lands
  • Subsistent farmers switched from grain to cotton/tobacco
  • Power of military fell; Janissaries hired ill-trained substitutes to fight instead
  • 1683 – second failed attempt to take Vienna
  • 1718-1730 “Tulip Period”
  • 1730 Janissary revolt and Sultan Ahmed III abdicates, Patrona Halil governs till captured/killed
  • Mid 18thC. Mamluks regained dominance in Egypt; Arabia, Sunni movement led by Abd al-Wahhab rose
ii the safavid empire
II. The Safavid Empire

A. The Rise of the Safavids

  • Death of Timur - Ismail claimed himself Shah of Iran in 1502
  • Shi’ite Islam - Sunni beliefs to be abandoned (majority Sunni)
  • Ismail’s Sufi brotherhood, fought on his behalf, known as the Qizilbash.
  • Iranian subjects resisted, and neighboring lands gave refugee to Sunnis
  • Ismail’s son Tahmasp successful - Shi’ite Iran
b society and religion
B. Society And Religion
  • By 1500 a library of legal/theological writings; epic, lyric, and poetry
  • Iranian scholars/writers knew both Arabic/Persian
  • Iran made contacts with India, where Muslim rulers made Persian language of the government
  • Persian Poets Hafez(1319-1389) and Sa’di(1215-1291) made morally instructive/allegorical poetry popular
  • All Muslim areas had mosques/madrasas that trained the Ulama to interpret the Shari’a, but local understandings of traditions varied
  • Impact of Shi’ism in Iran significant; Shi’ite doctrine says that temporal rulers are stand-ins for the “Hidden Imam” the twelfth descendent of Ali
c a tale of two cities isfahan and istanbul
C. A Tale of Two Cities: Isfahan and Istanbul
  • BOTH
  • No wheeled vehicles, used camels
  • Both cities had guilds that were socially/economically bonded
  • Women seldom in public; women’s quarters in Iran = anderun “interior” and in Istanbul called harem or “forbidden area”
  • Islamic law, unlike European codes, allowed women to hold property after marriage, and could testify in court.

ISFAHAN - Safavid

  • became Iran’s capitol in 1598 by decree of Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) ;
  • featured brick domes covered with tiles, and unobtrusive minarets
  • far from the sea, traded more with Jews/Hindus/Armenians
  • located away from danger in the center of Iran

ISTANBUL - Ottoman

  • built on seven hills had lots of gray lead domed mosques and pointed minarets including Aya Sophya (Hagia Sophia)
  • traded with European often due to harbor
d economic crisis political collapse
D. Economic Crisis & Political Collapse
  • Silk from N. Iran main foreign trade; manufacturing carpets made by yarn/threads associated with Iran: different carpets per city (Women/child)
  • Most of shah’s subjects lived by subsistence farming or herding
  • Shah grants large sections of land to Qizilbash nomads in return for warriors
  • Safavids had difficulty paying troops armed with firearms; needed firearms/artillery to fight of Ottomans/Uzbeks
  • Nomad warriors refused to trade arrows for guns; Shah had to employ slave corps of annul soldiers armed with guns
  • Christian converts to Islam added to troops and grew to hold power
  • Late 1500s -inflation caused by cheap silver spread into Iran; overland trade declined due to mismanagement of silk due to death of shah Abbas (1629)
  • Removal of nomads from their land proved difficult (needed the taxes)
  • 1722 - Afghan’s captured Isfahan/ended Safavid rule
  • Safavids never possessed a navy and (Portuguese captured Gulf island of Hormuz)
  • Shah relied on English/Dutch naval support; Nadir shah unified Iran briefly between 1736-1747, purchased naval vessels from English
iii mughal empire 1526 1761
III. Mughal Empire 1526-1761

A. Political Foundations

  • Descendent of Timur, Babur (1483-1530) founded Mughal Empire; invaded from C. Asia and defeated sultan of Delhi at Battle of Panipat in 1526
  • India = primary area of Mughal accomplishment; Babur’s grandson Akbar (1556-1605) established the central administration of the state
  • Akbar granted land revenues (mansabs) to military officers/government officials in return for service. (nonhereditary)
  • Economy was based on cotton cloth, and administration; foreign trade boomed at port of Surat in NW, also point of embarkation to Mecca
  • Mughals had no navy, Indian merchant ships were privately owned

B. Hindus and Muslims

  • Muslim destruction of Hindus cultural monuments, the expansion of Muslim territory, and POW’s/forced converts horrified Hindus
  • 70% of mansabdars(officials who had land grants) under Akbar, were Muslim soldiers born outside of India, 15% Hindus from the N (Rajputs)
  • Akbar strived for social harmony, not just territory/revenues; married a Hindu Rajput princess and welcomed her family to court
hindus and muslims continued
Hindus And Muslims continued
  • Akbar ruled that in legal disputes between 2 Hindus, dispute would be decided by village customs or Hindu law; Muslims followed Shari’a law
  • 1579 - Akbar made himself last resort in legal court ; also made himself center of “Divine Faith” incorporated Muslim/Hindu/Zoroastrian/Sikh/Christian ideas
  • Akbar’s court culture lasted until his zealous great-grandson Aurangzeb
  • Mughal/Rajput depictions of people in portraits, frowned upon by Muslims
  • Lead painters were Hindu; Persian poetry favored at court, language Urdu
  • Most Muslim converts occurred in Indus River valley
  • Introduction of Sikhism in Punjab (NW India)
  • Nanak (1469-1539) 1st guru; stressed mediation and combined Muslim/Hindu beliefs; no caste system
  • Auranzeb had 9th guru beheaded in 1675 for refusing to convert to Islam
  • 10th guru reorganized followers “the army of the pure” for revenge
central decay and regional challenges 1707 1761
Central Decay and Regional challenges 1707-1761
  • Mughal power fell after death of Aurangzeb in 1707; land grant system one cause of this; decline of imperial authority
  • Aurangzeb failed to integrate new Mughal territories into the imperial structure and regional military leaders challenged Mughal supremacy
  • The Marathas took territory across India’s middle, and Sikhs, Hindu Rajputs, and Muslim Afghans exerted pressure from the NW
  • 1739 Nadir Shah sacked Delhi, and took the crown jewels
  • 1723 Nizam al-Mulk, the vizier of the sultan, gave up on the central government and established independent state at Hyderabad in E. Deccan
  • Other officials (nawabs) became independent in Bengal/Oudh in NE, and Marathas W, NW Afghans set up an independent kingdom
  • Joseph Francois Dupleix took over stronghold of Pondicherry in 1741 and captured the English trading center of Madras, after 1754 – open for British colonization