Chapter 1: Ethics and Ethical Reasoning. Why Study Ethics? There are differing views of moral rights and wrongs Matters are not always easy to judge What is Ethics? The set of values or principles held by individuals or groups A study of the various sets of values that people do have
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Chapter 1: Ethics and Ethical Reasoning • Why Study Ethics? • There are differing views of moral rights and wrongs • Matters are not always easy to judge • What is Ethics? • The set of values or principles held by individuals or groups • A study of the various sets of values that people do have • Ethics is a branch of philosophy; moral philosophy • Normative Ethics • Metaethics • Philosophical questions can be asked about many subjects • Ethics and Religion
Chapter 1 continued • Ethics and Religion • Ethics and religious grounding • Religion as a motivation for morality • Ethical and Other Types of Evaluation • Descriptive judgments • Normative judgments • Differences between the two • Ethical Terms • Right/Wrong • Good/Bad • Ought/Ought not
Chapter 1 continued • Ethics and Reasons • Rational or Emotional • Inituitionism or emotive • Ethical Reasoning and Arguments • Reasons • Conclusions • Premises • Evaluating and Making Good Arguments • Soundness • Value assumptions • Conceptual matters • Factual assertions
Chapter 1 continued • The connection of Ethical Theory, Ethical Principles, and Ethical Judgments • Can Ethics Be Taught? • A matter of knowledge • A matter of motivation
Chapter 1 continued • Plato’s Euthyphro • The First Definition of Piety • The Second Definition of Piety • Is the pious holy because it is loved by the gods or is it loved by the gods because it is holy?
Chapter 1 continued • Stevenson - The Emotive Meaning of Ethical Terms • How can ethical questions be made clear? - The question of relevance - The question of goodness • The Traditional Interest theories - Ethical terms are instruments - Emotive meaning and the dynamic use of words