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Waste System. Pg. 190-193. Solubility Pg. 17. There is a limit to the amount of solute you can add to a solvent Solution = solvent + solute Ex: Kool-aid = water + kool-aid powder

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waste system

Waste System

Pg. 190-193

solubility pg 17
Solubility Pg. 17
  • There is a limit to the amount of solute you can add to a solvent
  • Solution = solvent + solute
  • Ex: Kool-aid = water + kool-aid powder
  • Have you ever made hot chocolate and could not get the powder in the bottom to mix in (no matter how long you stirred?)
  • This is because your hot chocolate reached solubility
solubility
Solubility
  • The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent
  • Name the solute, solvent and solution in the following examples:
    • Ice tea, ice tea powder, water
    • Salt, salt water, water
    • Water, grapes, wine
  • Concentration is measure C= m/v
concentration
Concentration
  • C=m/v
  • C= concentration
  • m = mass of solute (g)
  • v = volume of solvent (L)
  • Find the concentration of salt when 5g of salt is added to 2L of water. What is the final solution?
solubility1
Solubility
  • Just like concentration, solubility can be expressed with many units
    • g/L
    • Percent mass (%m/V)
    • Percent volume (%V/V)
    • Percent mass (%m/m)
  • If there is less than the maximum amount of solute (not enough salt in soup) it is called unsaturated
solubility2
Solubility
  • If it contains exactly the maximum amount of solute (you do not need to add any salt to your soup) it is called Saturated
  • If it contains more than the maximum amount of solute it is called supersaturated
    • In most cases the extra solute is called a Precipitate
solubility3
Solubility
  • Depends on many factors
    • Nature of the solute (will sand ever dissolve in water?)
    • Temperature (does cold water or hot make sugar dissolve faster?)
    • Pressure (do you think it is easier to make Kool-aid at sea level or up on Mount Everest?)
temperature variations pg 18
Temperature variations Pg. 18
  • When temperature increases so does the solubility of many solids
  • Solubility of many gases decreases when temperature increases
  • Fig 1.21 and 1.22 what do you see??
  • Table 1.23 how is the dissolving of sugar changed? Explain what you see…
aqueous solution
Aqueous solution
  • What does aqueous mean? Anything sound familiar?
  • As soon as you add water (solvent) to a solute it becomes an aqueous solution
  • Write an example of an aqueous solution and describe the solvent and solute for me.

______________________________________________________________________________

dissolution
Dissolution
  • When you have too much solute compared to solvent
  • Give an example…what about soup?
  • How would this change your concentration?
  • Can you explain this using the particle model?
  • Pg. 16 use the idea from Dilution
  • Draw it out for me…
dilution
Dilution
  • When you have too much solvent compared to solute
  • Give an example…what about soup?
  • How would this change your concentration?
  • Can you explain this using the particle model? Pg. 16
  • Draw it out for me…
dilution pg 16
Dilution pg. 16
  • How would your concentration change after you dilute your solution? (increase or decrease?)
  • You need to be able to show me mathematically as well as with the particle model
  • Mathematically we use the formula

C1V1= C2V2 what is C1?V1?C2?V2?

dilution problem on pg 16
Dilution problem on pg. 16
  • Let’s do the math together… SHOW YOUR WORK!
dilution1
Dilution
  • Problem 2

I have 2 L of lemonade with a concentration of 4g/L, but Alex tells me it is too sweet so I add 2 more litres of water. What is the new concentration of the lemonade?

Show your work.

dilution homework
Dilution homework
  • Complete the Dilution worksheet I gave you March 12th
  • For homework and it is for marks!!
urinary system
Urinary System
  • The elimination of waste from the body
  • Cellular activity can produce waste that is toxic to the body and must be eliminated
  • EXCRETION is the process by which waste products are eliminated from the body
  • Main organs that eliminate waste: lungs, kidneys and sweat glands
sweat glands
Sweat glands
  • There are ~ 2 500 000 sweat glands on the surface of your body
  • These glands secrete sweat by means of a channel that opens on the skin’s surface
  • Sweating or perspiration is a mechanism that helps to regulate body temperature (mainly in hot weather or when we exert ourselves)
  • Sweat is made up of water and waste materials from the blood
  • This is why sweat plays a role in excretion
urinary system1
Urinary System
  • Main parts include: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
  • The tubes that carry urine are the ureters and urethra
  • Pg. 191 Fg 6.47 make sure you can label all the parts and know where they are located
  • Table 6.48 pg. 192 explains the description and function of the main parts…KNOW THEM!!
kidneys
Kidneys
  • Description:
  • Function:
ureters
Ureters
  • Description:
  • Function:
bladder
Bladder
  • Description:
  • Function:
urethra
Urethra
  • Description:
  • Function:
summary
Summary
  • What is solubility?
  • What can affect solubility of a substance (like solid or gas)?
  • Describe solute, solvent and solution and how they can make a concentration
  • What is an aqueous solution?
  • How would you use C1V1=C2V2?
summary1
Summary
  • What is dissolution?
  • Can you draw it?
  • What is dilution?
  • Explain it using concentration and volume
  • Name the main parts of the urinary system
  • What are their functions?
  • What is the main role of the excretory system?
almost done pg 192
Almost done… Pg. 192
  • Main components of urine…
    • The kidneys filter the blood, removing waste and creating a liquid called urine
    • Urea is the chief waste product from the blood
      • It is created when the cells use protein to produce energy and amino acids are oxidized (oxygen and energy)
    • Write the equation for this oxidization:

_________________________________________

more on urine
More on urine
  • Kidneys also help keep blood in balance
    • They stabilize the amount of water in the blood, constant concentration of mineral balance
    • If the blood contains excess (too much) water or minerals, the kidneys EXCRETE them
  • Urine:
    • Water (90%)
    • Urea (2.5%)and other waste
    • Minerals
    • Excess substances in blood (if you took a multi-vitamin you would pee out whatever is not absorbed…so you should eat FRESH and real food whenever possible)
and more
And more…
  • Urine could also contain…
    • Protein, glucose, fats and blood cells (BUT if this is in your urine it is a bad health sign)
    • Traces of medication or drugs (this is why athletes have to do urine checks to see about Doping/steroids)
  • Amount of urine produced by body can depend on concentration of minerals in blood and amount of water in body
urine
Urine
  • If mineral concentrations is too low, the kidneys excrete more water, Raising the level of minerals
  • BUT if the body lacks water, the concentration of minerals in the body is too high, the kidneys Excrete LESS water so we feel thirsty.
  • This the body’s way of letting you know you need to drink more liquid and help maintain homeostasis!!!
homework
Homework
  • Pg. 197
  • # 18-20
  • Due next class
  • On a Loose Leaf paper so I can pick it up
  • HAVE FUN!!! 