Structure and resilience of fungal communities in Alaskan boreal forest soils
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Structure and resilience of fungal communities in Alaskan boreal forest soils D. Lee Taylor Ian C. Herriott Jack W. McFarland Michael G. Booth Photographer: Roger Ruess. Summary of Three Fungal Community Structure Studies Two broad surveys, 1) UP and 2) TKN black spruce sites

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Structure and resilience of fungal communities in Alaskan boreal forest soils

D. Lee Taylor

Ian C. Herriott

Jack W. McFarland

Michael G. Booth

Photographer: Roger Ruess


Summary of Three Fungal Community Structure Studies boreal forest soils

  • Two broad surveys, 1) UP and 2) TKN black spruce sites

    a. Inter-annual variation

    b. Successional dynamics

  • 3) Intra-annual variation, single spruce site

  • Conclusions


Coupling Diversity with Function: Metagenomics of Boreal Forest Fungi

USDA-NSF Microbial Genome Sequencing Program, 2003-2007

Goals

• Fill out sequence space for Alaskan fungi

- Sporocarps

- Soil DNA

• Determine how to adequately sample fungi in soil

• Characterize fungal community structure within the BNZ

LTER site across time space and time


BNZ Upland “UP” Core Sites; Interior Alaska Black Spruce TKN Sites

Upland

• 9 sites: UP1a, b, c - early successional

UP2a, b, c - mid successional

UP3a, b, c - late successional

Black spruce

• 12 sites: - 3 dry, acidic

- 3 wet, acidic

- 3 dry, non-acidic

- 3 wet, non-acidic

• Sampled same locations in 2004, 2005

• 50 cores per site/sampling date, 2100 cores total

• Cores divided into organic and mineral fractions;

fractions pooled within sites

Co-conspirators:

Jack McFarland

Teresa Hollingsworth

Roger Ruess

Niall Lennon

Chad Nusbaum


Dominants have strong host preferences TKN Sites

Distributions of 30 Dominant Taxa


NMS Ordination: UP and TKN black spruce sites, TKN Sites

separate years

Low year-year variation within a site


Upland TKN Sites

Black spruce

organic

organic

mineral

NMS Ordination: UP and TKN black spruce sites,

years combined


Tests for fungal community differentiation: TKN Sites

multiple response permutation procedure

Upland + black spruce differ; horizons differ; year-year variation insignificant


UP2 TKN Sites

UP3

UP1

NMS Ordination: UP only, years combined

Strong structure by stage

Greatest variation in early stage


Community dissimilarities by successional stage TKN Sites

Greatest variation in early succession

F = 4.17, p = 0.036


Summary of Three Fungal Community Structure Studies TKN Sites

  • Broad surveys, UP and TKN black spruce sites

    a. Inter-annual variation

    b. Successional dynamics

  • Intra-annual variation, single spruce site

  • Conclusions


Part 2: Seasonal Dynamics? TKN Sites

• Sampled 1 site (white/black spruce) : August ‘04, October ‘04, February ‘05 and May ‘05

• cores into: Litter, Humic, Mineral

• 10 pooled cores per sampling date

• ~9500 clones analyzed

Ian Herriott

Niall Lennon

Chad Nusbaum

D. Lee Taylor


NMS Ordination: Humic horizon TKN Sites

Seasons have different communities

Summer most distinct

Spring

Summer

Fall

Winter


Summary of Three Fungal Community Structure Studies TKN Sites

  • Broad surveys, 1) UP and 2) TKN black spruce sites

    a. Inter-annual variation - resilence

    b. Successional dynamics - strong habitat and horizon prefs, most variable early

  • 3) Intra-annual variation - detectable dynamics

  • Conclusions



Thanks! TKN Sites

Michelle Augustyn

Jynene Black

Michael Booth

Dan Cardin

József Geml

Hope Gray

Ian Herriott

Scott Hillard

Teresa Hollingsworth

Sarah Hopkins

Jason Hunt

Shawn Huston

Tom Marr

Jack McFarland

Chad Nusbaum

Gary Laursen

Niall Lennon

Jim Long

Mitali Patil

Roger Ruess

Ina Timling



  • Take-Home Messages: the seasonal study

  • Inter-annual stability of communities (resilience)

  • Extreme structure by soil horizon

  • Divergence in horizon preferences among closely related taxa (fine niche-partitioning => lower resilience)

  • Detectable seasonal shifts in structure (resilience)


Cortinarius flexipes the seasonal study

Cortinarius collinitus

Black Spruce Site



Co-conspirators: the seasonal study

Michael Booth

Jack McFarland

Ian Herriott

Roger Ruess

Niall Lennon

Chad Nusbaum

  • Study I: Fungal diversity in 0.25g of boreal forest soil


Summary Stats the seasonal study

• Total clones sequenced 17664

• Too short, >2% Ns, non-fungal or ITS missing 8209

• Chimeras identified 258

• Clones remaining 9197

• D8

- final sequences 4880

- OTUs 276

- Singleton OTUs 162

• H4

- final sequences 4317

- OTUs 218

- Singleton OTUs 105

• Combined OTUs 433

• Shared D8-H4 OTUs 60


Rank Abundance Plot, Core D8 the seasonal study


D8 Species Accumulation Curve the seasonal study



Dominants from soil cores ~1m apart the seasonal study

D8

H4





Ephemeral, clumped, large + small genets, appearance unpredictable

Diverse, intermixed, clumped to over-dispersed

???


M unpredictable

Q

T

I

J

O

L

H

N

P

S

F

G

B

E

D

A

C

K

R


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