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Energy on the Oceans Topic. Debating and understanding energy policy. Overview. Oil & Natural Gas Offshore Wind Ocean Energy OTEC, Tidal Power, etc. Methane Hydrates Additional Offshore Energy. Oil and Natural Gas. Oil & Natural Gas: Similarities.

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energy on the oceans topic

Energy on the Oceans Topic

Debating and understanding energy policy

overview
Overview
  • Oil & Natural Gas
  • Offshore Wind
  • Ocean Energy
    • OTEC, Tidal Power, etc.
  • Methane Hydrates
  • Additional Offshore Energy
oil natural gas similarities
Oil & Natural Gas: Similarities
  • Hydrocarbon: a substance that contains only carbon and hydrogen
  • Oil & Natural Gas are often found together in underground reservoirs
  • Reservoirs: rock formations that hold oil, natural gas or both within their pores.
oil basics
Oil Basics
  • What is oil used for?
    • Transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, etc.)
    • Plastics
    • Asphalt
    • Fertilizer
    • Heat
    • Some electricity
  • Who produces oil? (Top 5)
    • Russia
    • Saudi Arabia
    • United States
    • Iran
    • China
oil economics
Oil Economics
  • Supply: the total amount of a specific good or service that is available to consumers
  • Demand: how much (quantity) of a product or service is desired by buyers
oil geopolitics
Oil Geopolitics
  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  • Members: Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola
oil advantages
Oil Advantages
  • Oil Independence
  • Oil Prices
  • Economic Growth
natural gas basics
Natural Gas Basics
  • What is natural gas used for?
    • Heating
    • Cooking
    • Electricity
    • Chemical Feedstocks
  • Who produces natural gas? (Top 5)
    • United States
    • Russia
    • European Union
    • Iran
    • Canada
natural gas markets
Natural Gas Markets

Oil Prices

Sold at one price, all over the world

Exchanged in a global market

Natural gas Prices

  • Prices differ regionally
  • Natural gas is exchanged in regional markets
natural gas geopolitics
Natural Gas Geopolitics
  • There is no “OPEC” of natural gas
  • However, the EU is highly dependent on Russia for natural gas
  • Creates foreign policy constraints
natural gas advantages
Natural Gas Advantages
  • Warming
  • Natural Gas Exports
  • Natural Gas Prices
oil natural gas negative positions
Oil & Natural Gas: Negative Positions
  • Environment DA
  • Oil Prices DA
  • Natural Gas Prices DA
  • Military DA
  • Politics DA
  • Onshore CP
current state of offshore wind
Current State of Offshore Wind
  • Widespread development in Europe
  • Investment beginning in the United States, but lack of incentives/regulatory certainty
  • Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA)
offshore wind advantages
Offshore Wind: Advantages
  • Warming
  • Economy
  • Federalism
offshore wind negative positions
Offshore Wind: Negative Positions
  • Case Turn: Wind Increases CO2
  • Politics DA
  • Budget DA
  • Environment DA
  • Electricity Prices DA
  • Onshore CP
  • Free Market CP
ocean thermal energy conversion otec
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qGwsvuxuK7g
  • Works best in areas with large difference in ocean temperatures, such as Hawaii
current state of otec development
Current State of OTEC Development
  • Fully operational OTEC plant opened in Japan in 2013
  • Technical and cost challenges remain
otec advantages
OTEC: Advantages
  • Warming
  • Economy
  • Desalination
  • Hydrogen Production
  • Chill-Soil Agriculture
  • Aquaculture
  • Mineral Extraction
otec negative positions
OTEC: Negative Positions
  • Budget DA
  • Politics DA
  • Electricity Prices DA
  • Environment DA
  • Land-Based CP
  • EIS CP
wave power
Wave Power
  • Uses waves to generate electricity
  • Projects in Portugal and Oregon
  • Environmental issues
tidal power
Tidal Power
  • Uses the power of the tide to create electricity
  • May not be topical, depending on the type of tidal power
  • Environmental issues
ocean current power
Ocean Current Power
  • Uses ocean currents to generate electricity
  • Least developed type of ocean energy
what are methane hydrates
What are methane Hydrates?
  • Methane hydrate: a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice
  • Found in sea-floor sediments and arctic permafrost
current state of methane hydrate production
Current State of Methane Hydrate Production
  • Test drillings in Canada and Japan
  • Becoming cost-effective
  • Seen as a potential breakthrough source of energy
methane hydrates advantages
Methane Hydrates: Advantages
  • Warming
  • Economy
  • Energy Leadership
  • Arctic/Russia
methane hydrates negative arguments
Methane Hydrates: Negative Arguments
  • Warming DA
  • Technical/Solvency Issues
floating nuclear power plants fnpp
Floating Nuclear Power Plants (FNPP)
  • Russia has invested in FNPPs
  • New 2014 solvency advocates
  • Potential advantages include: Warming, Desalination, Hegemony
  • Environment DA
undersea coal gasification
Undersea Coal Gasification
  • Coal gasification
  • Syngas: fuel gas mixture consisting of hydrogen and natural gas
  • Warming Advantage?
  • Pollution DA
offshore solar
Offshore Solar
  • Currently being developed in Japan
  • Technology is not very advanced, not a likely affirmative
marine algae biofuels
Marine Algae Biofuels
  • Algae biofuels are typically freshwater
  • Marine algae biofuels are possible but underdeveloped