KR: Supplement B. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM). Definition of Automation. Automation is a technology with the application of mechanical, electronic, and computer-based systems to operate and control production, this technology includes: Automatic machine tools to process parts
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Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
Automation is a technology with the application of mechanical, electronic, and computer-based systems to operate and control production, this technology includes:
Programmable automation. Three types of production automation as a function of production volume and product variety.
Parts per year
Machine control unit
FIGURE Basic components of an NC system.
Telecommunication linesGeneral configuration of a direct numerical control (DNC)
Robot and Its Standard Movements
Increase storage capacity
Increase floor space utilization
Recover space for manufacturing facilities
Improve security and reduce pilferage
Reduce labor cost in storage operations
Increase labor productivity in storage operations
Improve safety in storage function
Improve control over inventories
Increase stock rotation
Improve customer service
A flexible manufacturing system consists of a group of processing stations (CNC), interconnected by means of an automated material handling and storage system, and controlled by an integrated computer system.
Benefits of data integration
Benefits of each separate technology
Productivity vs. innovation
Efficiency vs. flexibility
Economy of scale
Work as a social activity
Separable variable costs
Expensive flexibility and variety
In contrast the CIM Factory is described by:
Economy of scope
Truncated product life cycle
Profitable flexibility and varietyFlexible Manufacturing
Standard product design
Low rate of change and high stability
Inventory used as a buffer
“Focused factory” as an organizing concept
Job enrichment and enlargement
Inexpensive surge and turnaround ability
Many custom products
Innovation and responsiveness
Production tied to demand
Functional range for repeated reorganization
Responsibility tied to reward
Flow systemsFlexible Manufacturing
Leading to factories that exhibit characteristics of:
To effectively use the capabilities of CIM as a strategic weapon, a firm should:
Toshiba’s computer factory in Ome is called an “intelligent works” because a snazzy computer network links office, engineering and factory operations, providing just-in-time information as well as just-in-time parts. Ome workers assemble nine different word processors on the same line and, on an adjacent one, 20 varieties of laptop computers. Usually they make a batch of 20 before changing models, but Toshiba can afford lot sizes as small as ten.
Workers on the lines have been trained to make each model but don’t need to rely on memory. A laptop at every post displays a drawing and instructions, which change when the model does. Product life cycles for low-end computers are measured in months these days, so the flexible lines allow the company to guard against running short of a hot model or overproducing one whose sales have slowed, Toshiba’s next goal: to get managers thinking about how to ship small lots fast and cheaply, with quicker feedback from stores, so sales and distribution are as flexible as the factories
Fuji Electric’s investment in FMS and the like soared starting in 1987. Fuji’s goal was to reduce lead time 30%, labor costs 70% , and work in-process inventory 50%.
When Fuji gets and order for an electric motor switch, 20% of the time the buyer wants-and gets 24 hour delivery. Another 40% must arrive within two days. Fuji didn’t narrow its product line: Those schedules are for customized work.
Ingersoll Milling Machine Company
The Ingersoll Co. uses an advanced CIM system that links design with manufacturing and process control. Ingersoll’s state-of-the-art computer-controlled manufacturing system will machine over 25,000 different prismatic parts used for specialized motor controls. Seventy percent of the production will occur in lot sizes of one. Half of the 25,000 will never be used again. Production cost is approximately the same as for a long run of a single standard part.
Vought Corporation’s $10 million flexible machining center began operations during the late 1980s. This advanced production technology allows the aerospace maker to produce some 600 different designs of specialized aircraft parts using the same equipment--even one design at a time in random sequence. It is expected to save Vought over $25 million annually in machine costs for these parts by performing 200,000 hours of work in less than 70,000 hours.