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Spanish Civil War 1936 - 1939. Causes - Notes. Causes. Unstable political system Early 20 th century - struggle between supporters of monarchy and democracy Periods of anarchy and terrorism eg.1906 – attempt to blow up the king on his wedding day

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causes
Causes

Unstable political system

  • Early 20th century - struggle between supporters of monarchy and democracy
  • Periods of anarchy and terrorism eg.1906 – attempt to blow up the king on his wedding day
  • Government used violence and terror to crush opposition
causes1
Causes

Unstable political system cont.

  • Growth of popularity of socialism and communism – demands for equality
  • Growth in trade unions – strikes
  • Demands for separatism – Basques, Catalans
  • Instability – 12 governments between 1919 and 1923
causes2
Causes

Unstable political system cont.

  • Military dictatorship – Primo de Rivera 1923 – 1930
  • 1930 – King abdicated – republic formed
  • 1930 – 1936 – series of right and left wing republican governments
  • 1936 – Republican left wing government elected (Popular Front) – introduced a series of reforms
causes3
Causes

Unstable political system cont.

  • Republican Government Reforms
  • Reduced powers of Catholic Church e.g. education - resentment
  • Big businesses brought under government control - nationalisation
  • Land taken from big landowners by government - resentment
  • Spanish society split
causes4
Causes

Republic/Popular Front Supporters

  • Liberal Republicans
  • Socialists
  • Communists
  • Anarchists
  • Trade Unionists
  • Anti Clericals
  • Nationalists – Basques, Catalans
causes5
Causes

Nationalist/Rebels

  • Army
  • Roman Catholic Church
  • Fascists (Falange)
  • Monarchists
  • Landowners
  • Businessmen
  • Roman Catholic peasants
causes6
Causes

Social divisions

  • Haves/have nots – few rich/most poor
  • 45% illiteracy
  • 2 million unemployed landless labourers
  • Political parties reflected divisions
  • Roman Catholic Church tolerated inequality – division between the ‘Faithful’ and non believers
causes7
Causes

Economic Collapse

  • One of the poorest countries in Europe in the 1930s
  • Farming outdated and inefficient
  • Industry and business lacked drive – lack of enterprise
  • Effects of Wall Street Crash 1929 – bankruptcy, unemployment
causes8
Causes

Economic Collapse cont.

  • Dictatorship of de Rivera collapsed in 1930
  • Political views polarised
  • Support for strong right wing leader with quick solutions
  • Support for left wing govt. – socialism or communism
causes9
Causes

Economic Collapse cont.

  • Loss of faith in economy led to loss of faith in democratic government
  • Strikes worsened the situation
  • Rightwing/left wing split in Spanish society aggravated
causes10
Causes

Army Interference in Politics

  • Tradition of army interference in Spanish politics for over a century
  • Strong institution in Spanish society
  • Right wing
  • Supported the Roman Catholic Church
  • Supported the Monarchy
causes11
Causes

Army Interference in Politics cont.

  • Supported the privileges of the middle and upper classes
  • Popular Front Government had sacked half of the army’s officers - resentment
  • Top generals – Mola and Franco had been sacked - resentment
  • Disgusted with anarchic state of Spain – wanted to restore order
  • Rebellion planned