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Blind Flooding

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  1. A Cluster-Based Backbone infrastructure for broadcasting in MANETs Student: Pei-Yue Kuo 691530040 2004. 1.15

  2. Blind Flooding A 1 1 B D 2 2 C • A host on receiving a broadcast message for the first time has the obligation to rebroadcast the message • Clearly, this hosts n transmissions in a network of n hosts

  3. Minimum Connected Dominating Set (MCDS) A subset of nodes is called a dominating set (DS) if every node in the network is either in the set or a neighbor of a node in the set

  4. Cluster Switch Gateway Routing [E. M. Royer ,1999]

  5. Multi-Level Hierarchies for Scalable Ad hoc routing [Elizabeth M., 2003] • Selection of Clusterhead • As a node is first initialized, it broadcasts a Hello message to its neighbors to announce its presence • Selection of Gateway • If it receives multiple Hello messages from cluster leader, it becomes a gateway • Otherwise it declares itself as a clusterhead.

  6. Multi-Level Hierarchies for Scalable Ad hoc routing G1 CH CH G2 G3 D G4 s G5

  7. System Architecture

  8. Source Dependent Connected Dominating Sets (SD-CDS) [Wei Lou,2003] • Selection of Clusterhead • When a candidate find itself the one with smallest ID, it declares itself as the clusterhead of a new cluster • notifies all its 1-hop neighbors C4 4 5 9 1 7 3 C3 C1 6 2 C2 8

  9. System Architecture • Selection of Gateway • To prevent the continual growth in the number of gateway • The concept of probability is introduced in the selection of gateway

  10. Selection of gateway algorithm (Cont.) c1 c5 c4 c2 c3

  11. Selection of gateway algorithm c1 c5 c4 c2 c3

  12. Selection of gateway algorithm c1 c5 c4 c2 c3

  13. Merits of proposed algorithm • A forwarding gateway is chosen based on two cases: • one that covers the maximum number of clusters • only one randomly chosen to forward for each cluster. • Contribution • Transmission traffic • Power utilization.

  14. References(Cont.) • S. Ni, Y. Tseng, Y. Chen, and J. Sheu, “The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hoc network,” Proc. MOBICOM’99. pp. 151-162, Aug.1999. • H. Lim and C. Kim, “Flooding in wireless ad hoc networks,” computer Communications Journal, vol. 24, no. 3-4, pp. 353-363, 2001. • W. Lou and J. Wu, “On reducing broadcast redundancy in ad hoc wireless networks,” IEEE Transaction on Mobile Computing, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 111-123, April-June, 2002. • B.N. Clark, C.J. Colbourn, and D.S. Johnson, “Unit disk graphs. Discrete Mathematics,” 86:165-177. • Routing,” IEEE INFOCM, Vol. 3, 23-27, pp. 1707-1716, June, 2002. • Wei Lou and Jie Wu, “A Cluster-Based Backbone Infrastructure for Broadcasting in MANETs,” Proceedings of Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, April, 22-26, 2003. • Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer, “Multi-Level Hierarchies for Scalable Ad hoc Routing,” Wireless Networks,Vol. 9, Issue 5, pp. 461-478,Sept., 2003. • D.J. Baker and A. Ephremides, “The architectural organization of a mobile radio network via a distributed algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Communications 29(11), 1981.

  15. References(Cont.) • Zygmunt J. Hass, Joseph Y. Halpern, Li Li, “Gossip-Based Ad Hoc Routing,” IEEE INFOCM, Vol. 3, 23-27, pp. 1707-1716, June, 2002. • Wei Lou and Jie Wu, “A Cluster-Based Backbone Infrastructure for Broadcasting in MANETs,” Proceedings of Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, April, 22-26, 2003. • Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer, “Multi-Level Hierarchies for Scalable Ad hoc Routing,” Wireless Networks,Vol. 9, Issue 5, pp. 461-478,Sept., 2003. • D.J. Baker and A. Ephremides, “The architectural organization of a mobile radio network via a distributed algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Communications 29(11), 1981. • K. M. Alzoubi, P. J. Wan, and O. Frieder. Message-optimal connected dominating sets in mobile ad hoc networks. Proc.of ACM MOBIHOC’2002, pages 157–164, 2002.