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* For best quality, please view in slideshow format. Secondary Applications of RTI: A Guided Discussion Donald D. Deshler University of Kansas Joseph F. Kovaleski Indiana University of Pennsylvania December 7, 2007. Goals of Today’s Session.

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Secondary Applications of RTI: A Guided DiscussionDonald D. DeshlerUniversity of KansasJoseph F. KovaleskiIndiana University of PennsylvaniaDecember 7, 2007

Goals of today s session
Goals of Today’s Session

  • Identify key features and critical issues related to implementing RTI at the secondary level.

  • Engage participants in sharing information and ideas about secondary applications of RTI.

  • Keep track of ideas and share with participants.

Nclb and idea 2004

  • Scientifically based instruction, curriculum, and interventions

  • Identification of learning problems early

  • Ongoing monitoring to determine impact of curriculum and instruction

  • Design and implement remedial and individualized intervention for those who don’t respond

  • Inclusion of students in single accountability system

  • Documentation of student outcomes through AYP

It s not just about identification
It’s not just about identification…

  • IDEIA and NCLB are companion laws.

  • They are mutually referential.

  • Together, they envision a seamless system of supports, based on the use of scientifically based instruction, in both general and regular education.

  • The mission is the development of proficiency in basic skills (particularly reading) for all students.

What is response to intervention
What Is Response to Intervention?

  • A comprehensive, multi-tiered intervention strategy to enable early identification and intervention for students at academic or behavioral risk.

  • An alternative to the discrepancy model for the identification of students with learning disabilities.

Rti is the practice of
RTI is “the practice of…

  • (1) providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student needs and,

  • (2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to

  • (3) make important educational decisions. (p.5)”

National Association of State Directors of Special Education (2005)

Response to Intervention: Policy Considerations and Implementation, p. 5

Key characteristics of rti
Key Characteristics of RtI

  • High quality instruction in general education

  • Evidence-based instruction aligned to standards

  • Universal Screening of academics and behavior

  • Multiple tiers of increasingly intense interventions

  • Use of evidence-based interventions

  • Varied duration, frequency, and time of interventions

  • Continuous monitoring of student performance

  • Systematic assessment of intervention fidelity

Tier 1 benchmark phase
Tier 1: Benchmark Phase

  • Evidence-based core curriculum aligned with standards

  • Periodic benchmark assessments

  • Teachers analyzing students’ performance data

What is the core curriculum at the secondary level
What is the core curriculum at the secondary level?

  • Basic skills?

  • Content subjects?

  • Study/organizational skills?

Struggling readers in middle and high school
Struggling readers in middle and high school…

  • are usually less fluent readers

  • often have multi-syllabic needs

  • have much smaller sight word vocabularies

  • are less familiar with word meanings

  • have less conceptual and content knowledge

  • have fewer and less-developed comprehension strategies

  • typically don’t enjoy reading

Major areas of reading emphasis in middle and high schools
Major Areas of Reading Emphasis in Middle and High Schools

  • Expand sight vocabulary to unfamiliar words

  • Extend vocabulary development

  • Increase knowledge of text structures and genres

  • Acquire expanded content knowledge

  • Increase thinking and reasoning skills

  • Build positive connection with reading

Universal instructional design principles
Universal Instructional Design Principles

  • Direct instruction

  • Teacher modeling

  • Scaffolded instruction

  • Metacognitive instruction

  • Engagement approaches

Content Literacy

The listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking skills and strategies required to learn in each of the academic disciplines.

Content Literacy

is the door to content acquisition & higher order thinking.

Building Blocks for

Content Literacy






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A Continuum of Literacy Instruction

(Content Literacy Continuum -- CLC)

Level 1:Enhance content instruction(mastery of critical content for all regardless of literacy levels)

Level 2:Embedded strategy instruction (routinely weave strategies within and across classes using large group instructional methods)

Level 3:Intensive strategy instruction (mastery of specific strategies using intensive-explicit instructional sequences)

Level 4:Intensive basic skill instruction (mastery of entry level literacy skills at the 4th grade level)

Level 5:Therapeutic intervention (mastery of language underpinnings of curriculum content and learning strategies)

Intense explicit instruction rti

LEVEL 3/4/5



Commitment (student & teacher)


High expectations


Practice and quality feedback

Controlled and advanced

Posttest & reflect

Generalize, transfer, apply

Intense-Explicit Instruction (RTI)


  • Cue

  • Do

  • Review

    LEVEL 2

  • “I do it!” (Learn by watching)

  • “We do it!” (Learn by sharing)

  • “Ya’ll do it!” (Learn by sharing)

  • “You do it! (Learn by practicing)

The clc says
The CLC says…

  • There are unique (but very important) roles for each member of a secondary staff relative to literacy instruction

    • While every content teacher is not a reading teacher, every teacher needs to teach students in how to read content.

    • Literacy coaches may be necessary but aren’t sufficient

  • Some students require more intensive, systematic, explicit instruction of content, strategies, and skills

Content literacy synergy


Level 2. Embedded Strategy Instruction


Level 1. Enhanced Content Instruction

Level 3. Intensive Strategy Instruction

• strategy classes

• strategic tutoring

Level 4. Intensive Basic Skill Instruction

Level 5. Therapeutic Intervention

Foundational language competencies

Content Literacy “Synergy”

Improved Literacy

KU-CRL CLC- Lenz, Ehren, &Deshler, 2005

Tier 1 universal screening
Tier 1: Universal Screening

  • Content pegged to local, state or national standards

  • Brief (minutes per student)

  • Administered 3-4 times per year

  • Capable of giving useful printouts for analysis of:

    • Individual student performance on skills

    • Performance of groups in relation to benchmarks

What domains should be screened at the secondary level
What domains should be screened at the secondary level?

  • Basic skills?

  • Study/organizational skills?

  • Other?

Data analysis teaming
Data Analysis Teaming

  • Teams of like teachers working together to…

  • Access critical data on all students’ performance related to achievement of standards

  • Analyze data and find which students have which gaps in attainments

  • Set measurable goals to close the gap

  • Brainstorm or create instructional strategies

How can teaming be organized at the secondary level
How can teaming be organized at the secondary level?

  • Site-based literacy teams

  • Teachers working across subject areas

  • Teachers working within subject areas

Tier 2 strategic phase
Tier 2: Strategic Phase

  • Use of standard protocol interventions

  • Supplemental materials in general ed.

  • Differentiated instruction in general ed.

  • Short-term interventions (10-20 weeks)

  • Progress monitored twice per month (minimum)

A standard protocol intervention
A standard protocol intervention…

  • is scientifically based.

  • has a high probability of producing change for large numbers of students.

  • is designed to be used in a standard manner across students.

  • is usually delivered in small groups.

  • is often scripted or very structured.

  • can be orchestrated by a problem-solving team.

Strategic interventions at the secondary level
Strategic interventions at the secondary level

  • What are the targets for intervention?

  • What interventions are available?

  • How can progress be monitored?

  • How can support services be orchestrated within a typical secondary school schedule?

  • Or, should we change how secondary schools are organized?

Tier 3 targeted phase
Tier 3: Targeted Phase

  • Use of standard protocols

  • Supplemental instructional materials

  • Small intensive groups outside the general ed. classroom

  • Managed by remedial or special educators

  • Progress monitored twice per week

  • Interventions usually over extended periods

Special education like instruction mcmaster et al 2003
“Special-education-like Instruction”(McMaster et al., 2003)

  • Immediate corrective feedback

  • Mastery of content before moving to next lesson

  • More time on activities that were especially difficult

  • More opportunities to respond

  • Fewer transitions

  • Setting goals and self-monitoring progress

  • Special relationship with tutor

Strategic interventions at the targeted level
Strategic interventions at the targeted level

  • What are the targets for intervention?

  • What interventions are available?

  • How can progress be monitored?

  • How can support services be orchestrated?

  • What team formats are needed?

  • What is the interface with special education?

Determining eligibility for special education using rti at the secondary level
Determining eligibility for special education using RTI at the secondary level

  • What data will be available?

  • How can treatment fidelity be assessed?

  • What other assessment procedures are indicated?

Internet resources
Internet Resources the secondary level