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Static Single Assignment (SSA) Form

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### Static Single Assignment (SSA) Form

Jaeho Shin <[email protected]>2005-03-11 16:00

ROPAS Weekly Show & Tell

Outline

- Preliminaries
- Concept and definition of SSA form
- Algorithm for computing SSA form
- Relation with
- functional programming
- continuation passing style

- Flow sensitivity of analyses with SSA

Preliminaries

- Control flow graph
- predecessor, successor

- Dominators, strict dominators
- Immediate dominator
- Dominator tree
- parent, children

- Continuation passing style

Definition of SSA form

- Static Single Assignment Form is a transformed program
- Whose variables are renamed
- e.g. x --> xi

- Having only one definition for each variable
- Without changing the semantics of the original program
- i.e. every renamed variable xi of x must have the same value for every possible control flow path

- Whose variables are renamed

Why SSA form?

- More compact def-use chain
- Control flow becomes explicit on variable names
- Improves performance of many data-flow analyses

b = a - 1

a = y + b

b = x * 4

a = a + b

a1 = x + y

b1 = a1 - 1

a2 = y + b1

b2 = x * 4

a3 = a2 + b2

Example 1It’s so easy! Isn’t it?

Well… notin general!

Example 2

o = 0

e = 0

i = 0

while (i<100)

if (i % 2 == 0)

e = e + i

else

o = o + i

i = i + 1

print i, o, e

Example 2as a CFG

o = 0

e = 0

i = 0

if i < 100

if i % 2 == 0

e = e + i

o = o + i

i = i + 1

print i, o, e

Example 2What’s the matter?

o1 = 0

e1 = 0

i1 = 0

e1, o1, i1

o2 = ?

e2 = ?

i2 = ?

if i2 < 100

e3, o3, i3

if i2 % 2 == 0

e3 = e2 + i2

o3 = o2 + i2

i3 = i2 + 1

print i2, o2, e2

We need f-function

- f-function:
- a function that is defined to magically choose the correct variable from incoming control flow edges

- But, where should we place f’s?

Example 2How about this?

o1 = 0

e1 = 0

i1 = 0

o2 = f(o1,o7)

e2 = f(e1,e7)

i2 = f(i1,i7)

if i2 < 100

o4 = f(o3)

e4 = f(e3)

i4 = f(i3)

e6 = e4 + i4

o3 = f(o2)

e3 = f(e2)

i3 = f(i2)

if i3 % 2 == 0

o8 = f(o2)

e8 = f(e2)

i8 = f(i2)

print i8, o8, e8

o7 = f(o4,o6)

e7 = f(e6,e5)

i6 = f(i4,i5)

i7 = i6 + 1

o5 = f(o3)

e5 = f(e3)

i5 = f(i3)

o6 = o5 + i5

Dominance Frontiers

- Dominance frontier of a CFG node X:
- The set of all CFG nodes Y such thatX dominates a predecessor of Ybut does not strictly dominate Y

Dominance Frontiers (cont’d)

- Dominance frontiers of node X form the boundary between following nodes of X that X dominates and does not

nodes dominated by X

X

Y

W

Z

dominance frontiers of X

Definitions other than those in X may flow into Y, Z or W

We need to place f’s for each variable defined in Xat the dominance frontiers of X

Placing f’s at DFx = 1

a = x + 1

X

x = 2

Y

W

Z

y = x * 2

Example 2in minimal SSA form

o1 = 0

e1 = 0

i1 = 0

o2 = f(o1,o4)

e2 = f(e1,e4)

i2 = f(i1,i3)

if i2 < 100

if i2 % 2 == 0

e3 = e2 + i2

o3 = o2 + i2

o4 = f(o2,o3)

e4 = f(e2,e3)

i3 = i2 + 1

print i2, o2, e2

SSA form algorithm

- R. Cytron, et al. [1] presented an efficient algorithm computing SSA form using dominance frontiers
- For each variable v
- Place f-function for v at each nodes in DF+ of nodes defining vwhere DF+(S) = least fix point (lT.DF(T) U S) {}

- Traversing the dominator tree in pre-order,for each node X using the parent’s last map(*)
- For each assignments in X
- Rename used variables v --> vmap(v)
- Rename defined variables u --> ucount(u)
- replace map(u) = count(u) and count(u) = count(u) + 1

- For each successor Y of X, and for each f-function for v in Y
- Replace vmap(v) for corresponding argument

- For each assignments in X

- For each variable v

SSA is FP

- A. Appel [2] has shown converting to SSA is actually functional programming
- We can rewrite example 2 in a functional programming language

e1 = 0

i1 = 0

o2 = f(o1,o7)

e2 = f(e1,e7)

i2 = f(i1,i7)

if i2 < 100

o4 = f(o3)

e4 = f(e3)

i4 = f(i3)

e6 = e4 + i4

o3 = f(o2)

e3 = f(e2)

i3 = f(i2)

if i3 % 2 == 0

o8 = f(o2)

e8 = f(e2)

i8 = f(i2)

print i8, o8, e8

o7 = f(o4,o6)

e7 = f(e6,e5)

i6 = f(i4,i5)

i7 = i6 + 1

o5 = f(o3)

e5 = f(e3)

i5 = f(i3)

o6 = o5 + i5

SSA is FPnumbering BBs in example 21

2

4

7

3

6

5

let val o1 = 0 and e1 = 0 and i1 = 0

in f2(o1, e1, i1)

fun f2(o2, e2, i2) =

if i2 < 100 then f3(o2, e2, i2)

else f7(o2, e2, i2)

fun f3(o3, e3, i3) =

if i3 % 2 == 0 then f4(o3, e3, i3)

else f5(o3, e3, i3)

fun f7(o8, e8, i8) = print(i8, o8, e8)

fun f4(o4, e4, i4) =

let val e6 = e4 + i4

in f6(o4, e6, i4)

fun f5(o5, e5, i5) =

let val o6 = o5 + i5

in f6(o6, e5, i5)

fun f6(o7, e7, i6) =

let val i7 = i6 + 1

in f2(o7, e7, i7)

Still ugly, right?

SSA is FPtranslating BBs into ftnslet val o1 = 0 and e1 = 0 and i1 = 0

fun f2(o2, e2, i2) =

if i2 < 100

then let fun f6(o4, e4) =

let val i3 = i2 + 1

in f2(o4, e4, i3)

in if i2 % 2 == 0

then let val e3 = e2 + i2

in f6(o2, e3)

else let val o3 = o2 + i2

in f6(o3, e2)

else print(i2, o2, e2)

in f2(o1, e1, i1)

This is the SSA form of example 2!

The algorithm for converting programs to SSA form can be used for nesting functions to eliminate unnecessary argument passing

SSA is FPmaking use of nested scopesRelation withcontinuation passing style

- R. Kelsey [3] claims that CPS can be written into SSA and vice versa
- SSA --> CPS is possible since SSA is FP
- But, is CPS --> SSA generally possible?
- What’s the intuition?

Improving accuracy offlow-insensitive analyses

- Flow-insensitive analyses
- Analysis which can’t distinguish control flow

- SSA makes control flow soak into names of variables (however, with some limitations)

Example 3Set-based string analysis for C

char *s = “”;

strcat(s, “begin ”);

for (i=0; i<10; i++) {

sprintf(tmp, “%d ”, i);

strcat(s, tmp);

}

strcat(s, “end”);

printf(s);

Example 3Using intermediate language

s = “”;

s = s @ “begin ”;

for (i=0; i<10; i=i+1) {

tmp = i @ “ ”;

s = s @ tmp;

}

s = s @ “end”;

printf(s);

Vs ⊇ “”,

Vs ⊇ Vs @ “begin ”,

Vi ⊇ 0, Vi ⊇ Vi + 1,

Vtmp ⊇ Vi @ “ ”,

Vs ⊇ Vs @ Vtmp,

Vs ⊇ Vs @ “end”,

X ⊇ Vprintf(Vs)

}

Vs⊇ { “”, “begin ”, “begin 0”,“begin 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 end”, …, “end0 ”, “begin 100”, “endbegin ”, … }

Vs which represents the set of strings that variable s may contain is too large

Too inaccurate!

Example 3Derived set-constraintsExample 3into SSA form

s1 = “”;

s2 = s1 @ “begin ”;

s3 = s2;

for (i1=0, i2=i1; i2<10; i3=i2+1, i2 = i3) {

tmp1 = i2 @ “ ”;

s4 = s3 @ tmp1;

s3 = s4;

}

s5 = s3 @ “end”;

printf(s5);

Vs1 ⊇ “”,

Vs2 ⊇ Vs1 @ “begin ”,

Vs3 ⊇ Vs2,

Vi1 ⊇ 0, Vi2 ⊇ Vi1,

Vi3 ⊇ Vi2 + 1, Vi2 ⊇ Vi3,

Vtmp1 ⊇ Vi2 @ “ ”,

Vs4 ⊇ Vs3 @ Vtmp1,

Vs3 ⊇ Vs4

Vs5 ⊇ Vs3 @ “end”,

X ⊇ Vprintf(Vs5)

}

Vtmp1⊇ { “0 ”,“1 ”,“2 ”, … }

Vs3⊇ { “begin ” }

Vs3 @ Vtmp1

Vs5⊇Vs3 @ “end”

Vs5⊇ { “beginend”, “begin 0 end”, “begin 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 end”, “begin 9 8 2 1 end”, “begin 100 10 37 end”, … }

Better than before :-)

Example 3Constraints from SSA formProblems for SSA form

- How should we handle
- Global variables?
- Arrays and pointers?

- We sometimes need to turn SSA form back to programs without f-functions
- Handling critical edges
- Reducing redundant assignments

Conclusions

- SSA form is a transformed program where every variable has one definition
- Minimal SSA form can be computed with dominance frontiers
- With SSA form we can improve the accuracy of flow-insensitive analyses without modifying the analysis itself
- Converting to SSA form is similar to nesting functions in functional programs

References

[1] R. Cytron, et al., “An efficient method of computing static single assignment form”, POPL, 1989.

[2] A. Appel, “SSA is functional programming”, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 1998.

[3] R. Kelsey, “A correspondence between continuation passing style andstatic single assignment form”, ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 1993.

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