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Town Planning 1900-1948 Scott Brechin & Greg Britton
The 1900's • The years of transition between the l9th and 20th centuries were marked by a great number of cultural, social and political events. • Industrialization and colonization outside of the European continent were rapidly moving forward. • Emergence and exchange of political powers took place, which observed two world wars within its time. • The beginning of land and community planning as a profession emerged with the help of several significant contributors. The 20th century brought many cultural movements and life-changing advancements that help influence life for us today.
Post-War Planning • WORLD WAR I • Planning in short, was looked at as a political and social response to the conditions of early twentieth century, both before and after WWI. • The application of community planning developed into post-war reconstruction. • This became the cornerstone for the growing practice of city planning, which was completely legitimized as a profession after World War I. • City planning was still badly impacted by the struggle between the actions of private parties and public/governmental control • WORLD WAR II • The new towns following WW2 were far from being the first of their kind. There was little coordination involved in the development of these communities like there is today. • This era marked the first signs of change to more inner-city growth. • Mainly, a town or village still grew around an area of industrial importance or agricultural worth.
"... by so laying out a Garden City that, as it grows, the free gifts of Nature- fresh air, sunlight, breathing room and playing room- shall be still retained in all needed abundance" Ebenezer Howard • Originator of Garden City concept. Considered a ‘Grandfather’ of planning. • Author of many books, most successfully known for Tomorrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform in 1898. • Howard's basic concern was social reform, but he believed calling his town plan a “Garden City” would better set an aesthetic standard for the future influences on planning.
Patrick Geddes • Stressed the importance of knowing a town’s geography, history, economy, social conditions and means of transport and communication before planning • Conservative Surgery suggests removing as few buildings as possible as a means of urban renewal. • Believed that the populations overrunning natural landscape and agricultural resources would lead to problems in the future.
“The idea of the promoters of the Garden City was not to build an artistic town. We must first see that our citizens are decently housed.” Sir Raymond Unwin • A man very much involved technically with planning and has a good grasp of sociological issues. • Was also very much politically involved in town planning. • Unwin publishes "Town Planning in Practice" as a text book reviewing historic towns and residential development and putting forward his arguments on housing density and layout. • Followed in Adams footsteps as Chief Town Planning Inspector to the Local Government Board once Adams left for Canada. • Also became Chairman of the British Building Research Board after WWI. • Knighted in 1932 for his outstanding achievements for Britain. • Awarded honorary doctorate by Harvard University in 1937 before dying in America in 1940.
The Garden City Movement • Ebenezer Howard was a respected author and founder of the Garden City Movement. • Letchworth was the first garden city built. Letchworth was plan finally went into development in Britain, 1904. • The first North American garden city wasn’t developed until another 5 years later, in 1909. It was located in New York, called Forest Hills.
Garden City Ideals • Strong resemblance aesthetically between all the Garden Cities and Suburbs. • That persons of all classes of society and standards of income should be accommodated properly. • That the cottages and houses should be limited on an average to eight to an acre. • Roads should fit with ample space on both sides, with gardens, or paths occupying the intervening space. • That the plot divisions should not be walls but hedges or wire fences. • That every road should be lined with trees, making when possible, a colour scheme with the hedges. • That noise should be avoided at all costs for quieter, family living spaces. • That the houses be so planned that no one should spoil each other’s outlook or rob its neighbour of its beauty.
Thomas Adams • Born 1871, in Edinburgh. • Played significant roles in the developments of many cities, and garden cities alike, especially during wartime of WWI. • He was very much active politically in town planning and concerned himself most with residential planning. • Founder and first president of the British Town Planning Institute in 1914, and later first president of Town Planning Institute of Canada. • He helped pass the 1909 Housing and Town Planning Act in Britain, organize local government boards in Britain, as well as managing the first ever garden city, Letchworth.