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ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGY . philosophy, religion and physiology . Merging of philosophy, religion and physiology. attempt to explain WHY we do what we do integrate the spiritual ideas of causation with the physical causes did not break away as own field until 1878 with Wilhelm Wundt.

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philosophy, religion

and physiology

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Merging of philosophy, religion and physiology

  • attempt to explain WHY we do what we do

  • integrate the spiritual ideas of causation with the physical causes

  • did not break away as own field until 1878 with Wilhelm Wundt

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Religious Influences

  • Stone age practices: Trephoning

    • stone age practice to let out evil spirits

    • abnormal behavior = influence of evil spirits

    • must let them out to regain normal behavior

    • worked just often enough!

  • Greek philosophers:

    • behavior = acts of god and demonology

    • e.g. Zeus, Aphrodite, etc.

  • Witch Hunts, etc.

    • Salem in USA

    • idea that abnormal behavior = devil

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  • Hippocrates (460-370 BC)

    • questioned belief that behavior governed by gods

    • proposed instead that behavior has natural causes

    • health, and thus behavior = balance of 4 body fluids or humors

      • blood (too much = aggression)

      • black bile (too much = depression)

      • yellow bile (too much = anxiety, discomfort)

      • Phlegm

  • Aristotle:

    • father of western thought

    • divided soul and psyche into two:

      • mind

      • vs physical nature

    • also concludes that everything is learned

    • two CRITICAL ideas that set stage for all psychology

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Middle Ages

  • Return to religion,

    • supernatural forces as cause of behavior

    • church suppresses much thought

  • All Western thinking tied up in church dogma

    • behavior = will of God

    • treatment of mental illness in hands of priest

    • exorcisms, devil possessions

    • e.g. witch dunking test

  • Islam is continuing scientific traditions

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  • Philosophy breaks away from the church

    • behavior once again attributed to natural causes

    • huge increase in rational thought

  • return of mind-body problem and idea that everything is learned

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  • renaissance philosopher

  • was a DUALIST

    • made distinction between MIND vs BODY

    • separates the two

  • also: first to talk about the reflex arc

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British Associationists

  • believed that everything was learned

  • Tabula Rasa or blank slate

  • were MONISTS: did not separate mind and body

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19th century: ZEITGEIST

  • huge change in thinking

  • several important influences

    • Karl Marx

    • Charles Darwin

    • Sigmund Freud

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First true psychologists:

  • Wilhelm Wundt opens first lab in 1878 in Leipzig

    • first journal in 1881

    • originally trained as physiologist

  • Marked transition of psychology from philosophy to science

  • Important because of his dedication to psych as  a science

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Several Schools or Systems of Psychology

  • School or system is a systematic method of study guided by a set philosophy or theoretical viewpoint

  • defines the subject matter to be studied

  • 7 Great Systems in psychology

  • studied “introspection”:

    • scientific study of the structure of the mind

    • analysis of mental phenomena into its elements

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  • Interested in studying people’s mental experiences.

    • Used method called introspection

  • Edward Titchner (1867-1927) brought Wundt’s teachings and methods to US.

  • Wundt and Titchner are identified with school of psychology known as structuralism.

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  • William James (1842-1910) founded the school of psychology known as functionalism.

  • Focused on the roles or functions that underlie mental processes

  • Why we do what we do

  • interested in what function of mind is

  • highly influenced by Darwin

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  • Wertheimer (1880-1943) was fascinated by the illusion of movement by objects in the distance.

  • How does the brain organize and structure our perceptions of the world

  • Whole is greater than the sum of its parts

  • Perception psychologists, but laid groundwork for modern cognitivists

  • Most of theories later supported by the other great schools

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The whole is greater than the sum of its parts!

Parts = 17 black circles

The Whole = an arrow!

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  • Watson (1878-1958) founded the school of psychology known as behaviorism.

    • Psychology should be a science of behavior only.

    • Believed that environment molds behavior

    • By 1920s, behaviorism became dominant force in American psychology

  • B.F. Skinner

    • Studied how behavior is shaped by rewards and punishments

    • Principles of learning apply to animals and humans alike

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  • Understanding behavior by understanding unconscious An Austrian physician

  • Sigmund Freud

    • Founded view of psychology called the psychodynamic perspective

    • Focused on the unconscious mind

    • Emphasized importance of early childhood experiences

  • Led to form of psychotherapy known as psychoanalysis

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Behavioral Perspective

Social-cognitive theory

Behavioral therapy

Psychodynamic Perspective

Humanistic Perspective

“Third Force” in psychology

Physiological Perspective

Evolutionary psychology

Behavioral Neuroscience

Cognitive/Behavioral Perspective

Sociocultural Perspective

Contemporary Psychology