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Flood Mitigation Master Plan for Chao Phraya Delta INWEPF 2007 Suphat Vongvisessomjai Professor, Water and Environment Expert TEAM Consulting Engineering and Management Co.,Ltd. e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org. Abstract. Master plans of flood mitigation for Chao Phraya Delta,
Professor, Water and Environment Expert
TEAM Consulting Engineering and Management Co.,Ltd.
e-mail : email@example.com
rice bowl of Thailand, are as follows :
after 1983 flood from the King’s initiation by King’s Dike to
protect rainwater from northern and eastern boundaries
and the Chao Phraya river water from the west
after 1995 flood, Initially developed by AIT,DHI and ACRES
for World Bank, further developed in details by JICA, and
finally developed in Thai by Crown Property Bureau.
The proposed master plan of flood mitigation for Chao Phraya
Delta after 2006 flood, with new diversion using AIT river
The Chao Phraya Delta,rice bowl of Thailand
FAO study in 1948 recommended that Thailand’s economic
strength lay in exportingrice to alleviate world-wide
food shortages due the war.
1950,Thailand secured a World Bank loan
1952,commenced work on the Greater Chao Phraya
1957,first phase completion of Asia’s largest irrigation project.
1961,additional component : Bhumibol dam and irrigation canal.
1977,Sirikit dam finished for 25 year irrigation program and
Thailand is ranked first in rice export.
AIT river network model was developed by Vongvisessomjai and
Suppataratarn 1998 and used as tool for Chao Phraya flood
management review for World Bank and forecast future floods
especially 2006 flood
2.1 The First Master Plan
Dike to protect Bangkok after
4 months flood in 1983 due
to heavy rainfall
Eastern Bangkok Polder
After 1995 flood with extensive damage, World Bank requested AIT,DHI,
and ACRES to conduct a Chao Phraya flood management review
JICA provided assistance to develop an Integrated Plan for Flood Mitigation
based on recommended work plans of World Bank report
Crown Property Bureau reported in Thai the framework of water resources
management which proposed 3 mitigation measures for water shortages,
floods and pollutions
The proposed master plan is developed from 2006 flood data
3.1Important Data of 2006 Flood
(1) Severe floods occurred more frequently, i.e. in 1995,2002 and 2006
due to invasion of upper catchments, and insufficient drainage of flood flow
resulted in extensive damages at Singhburi,Angthong,Ayutthaya and
Bangsai which is a bottle-neck that limit the flow less than 3,500 m3/sresulted
In flooding upstream in all areas of Ayutthaya
(2) Flood waves in 2006 from Chao Phraya Dam to Bangsai:
AtChainat, 7 m. and peak at 17.50 m.
AtSingburi, 6 m. and peak at 13.14 m.
AtAngthong, 5 m. and peak at 8.19 m.
AtAyutthaya, 2 m. and peak at 4.70 m.
AtBangsai, 1.5 m. and peak at 3.60 m.
Chao Phraya Dam (-1,000 cms)
Singhburi (-1,000 cms)
Angthong (-1,000 cms)
Ayutthaya (-1,000 cms)
Bangsai (-1,000 cms)
Chao Phraya Dam (-500 cms)
Singhburi (-500 cms)
Angthong (-500 cms)
Ayutthaya (-500 cms)
Bangsai (-500 cms)
Daily Highest Water Level (m.MSL)
16 Sep. 21 Sep. 26 Sep. 1 Oct. 6 Oct. 11 Oct. 16 Oct. 21 Oct. 26 Oct. 31 Oct. 5 Nov. 10 Nov. 15 Nov.
Date from 16 September to 15 November
2006 Flood Hydrographs of the
Chao Phraya River from Chao Phraya Dam to
Bangsai and the Decreased Water Levels
due to Diversion of 500 and 1,000 m3/s at Bangsai
showed severe floodings in Chainat,Singhburi,
Angthong and Ayutthaya
Undrained water’s at Bangsai inundated
Chao-chet,Pakhai and Sena,then flowed to the
Tha Chin and floodedBanglen to the mouth of
the Tha Chin at Krathumban and Muang of
Flooded Area and Maximum
Water Level in 1995
in the Chao Phraya River
(Contributed by GISTDA from Summary
Report on Satellite Imagery of Flooding in 2006)
(1) The leftover mitigation, the diversion, is very costly and not so
effective as shown in Fig.3
(2) The river diversion is the major factor to alleviate flooding
(3) It can be seen in Fig.4 that the Tha Chin river flows from Chao
Phraya Dam parallel to the Chao Phraya river. Its capacity is only
10 percent (350 m3/s) of the Chao Phraya river (3,500 m3/s)
because of 4 regulators (Pholathep,Thabote,Samchuk&Phophraya)
but downstream of Phophraya to the river month, the river sections
are large enough for 1,500 m3/s
(4) Therefore, a diversion canal in the upper Tha Chin is best mitigation
Figure 7 : Three-dimensional plot of the analytical model of water surface fluctuation with respect to distance and time. (Vongvisessomjai,S. and Chatanantavet,P. 2006)
Phraya Banlu (142)
Phra Pimon (121)
Maha Sawat (89)
River Mouth (0)
Date in January 2002
Figure 7b. Three-dimensional plot of water surface fluctuation in the Tha Chin River
with respect to distance and time.
River Network Model
Figure 9: 2006 Flood Hydrographs of the
Chao Phraya River from Chao Phraya Dam
to Bangsai and the Decreased Water Levels due
to Diversion of 500 and 1,000 m3/s to the
Tha Chin River
(1) Floods in the Chao Phraya Delta were caused by the in sufficient
drainages to the sea which inundated the rice bowl of Thailand
The eastern diversion could not be built due to its expensive
land cost and high pumping cost
(2) The new diversion was found most effective to mitigate flood
in the Chao Phraya Delta.
It helped minimize floodings at Chainat,Singhburi,Angthong
Ayutthaya and Bangsai
It also helped minimize floodings downstream of the Tha Chin
from Banglen to the river mouth.
(3) The new diversion costed less than the eastern diversion and had
less impact to the people since its course was along the existing
river which required less dredging and its merit of high head near
to the Chao Phraya Dam which required no pumping.