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THEORIES & PRACTICE of TEFL. Director: Professor Mavis Shang Name & ID: Xavier, Wu 9610008M Name & ID: Roger, Yu 9610009M Date: 10/18/2007 Dept. of Applied English of I.S.U. LISTEN UP!. Aural Comprehension Instruction. Introduction Aspects of listening in L.T. & L.L.

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theories practice of tefl

Director:Professor Mavis Shang

Name & ID:Xavier, Wu 9610008M

Name & ID:Roger, Yu 9610009M


Dept. of Applied English of I.S.U.

aural comprehension instruction
Aural Comprehension Instruction
  • Introduction
  • Aspects of listening in L.T. & L.L.
  • Principles of listening in L.T. & L.L.
  • Extensive & Intensive Listening
  • Skills and Strategies
  • Listening Lesson Sequences
  • Time of Q AND A
introduction the importance of listening
Introduction –The Importance of Listening
  • A Fundamental Skill
  • A Vehicle for Teaching of Grammatical Structure and Vocabulary
  • The More Opportunities of Using
  • The Best Way for Language Input
  • Establish on Different Stages
  • Extend Learners’ Vocabulary
aspects of listening in l t l l 1
Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L.(1)
  • Four Models of Listening—

Role and Purpose

    • Listening and Repeating#6
    • Listening and Answering#7
    • Task Listening#8
    • Interactive Listening#9
aspects of listening in l t l l 2
Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L.(2)
  • Three Modes of Communicative Listening—ActiveReceptive Skill
    • Bidirectional Listening Mode.#11
    • Unidirectional Listening Mode. #12
    • Autodirectional Listening Mode.#13
    • Implication for Instruction.
      • In both of the Two-way mode & One-way mode.
      • Self-dialogue should be used connection both of them.#27
bidirectional listening mode
Bidirectional Listening Mode
  • Two-way communicative listening
    • Learners take turns exchanging Speaker Role and Listener Role in face-to-face or telephone interaction.#10
unidirectional listening mode
Unidirectional Listening Mode
  • One-way communicative listening
    • Input comes from the sources of overheard conversation, public performances, telephone answering, the media.
    • Hearing but are unable to interact →Analyze what we hear→Talk to ourselves in a reaction#10
autodirectional listening mode
Autodirectional Listening Mode
  • Self-dialogue communicative listening
    • Internal roles: Speaker and Listener/ Reactor in our own thought processes.
    • Re-create language internally →Listening again →Retell and Relive communication.#10
aspects of listening in l t l l 3
Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L (3)
  • Psychosocial Function of Listening
    • Transactional Language Function.#15
    • Interactional Language Function. #16
    • Implication for Instruction.#27
      • Providing exercises in both TLF Talk AND ILF Talk.
      • Two functions may be Intertwined.
      • Instructions→ Listening→ Recognize→ Respond
transactional language function
Transactional Language Function
  • Message Oriented—Clarity& Precision
    • For Instructions, Directions, Explaining, Describing, Inquiring, Requiring, Checking on correctness of detail.
  • Business-typeTalk
    • Focus oncontent and conveying factual or propositional information.#14
interactional language function
Interactional Language Function
  • Person Oriented—Identify& Respect
    • For identifying with other person’s concerns, maintaining and respecting “Face”.
  • Social-typeTalk
    • Focus oncasual conversation.#14
aspects of listening in l t l l 4
Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L (4)
  • Psychosocial Processes of Listening
    • Bottom-Up Processes.#18
    • Top-Down Processes. #19
    • Implication for Instruction. #20
      • Interactional: to interact with teacher and student.
      • Transactional: to assimilate new input of information, concepts, and skills.
      • Purpose, Background knowledge, and Topic.#27
bottom up processes
Bottom-Up Processes
  • Aural ComprehensionProcess—Attention to Every DetailInput
    • Understanding of the “heard” process Sound→ Words→ Grammatical Structure→ Lexical meaning.
  • Bottom to Top
    • Base on incoming language data.#17
top down processes
Top-Down Processes
  • Aural Comprehension Process—Prior information about task of understanding
    • Internal sources:

Prior knowledge and global expectation

about language.

  • Top to Down
    • Prediction and Inference→ Bypass Bottom-to-Top processing.#17
richard s function processes
Richard’s Function & Processes




ex bottom up mode
Ex: Bottom-Up Mode
  • Cell 1:
    • Listening closely to a joke(Interactional)in order to know when to laugh. #20
    • Cell 3:
    • Listening closely toinstruction(transactional)during a first lesson.#20
ex top down mode
Ex: Top-Down Mode
  • Cell 2:
    • Listening casually to cocktail party talk(Interactional). #20
  • Cell 4:
    • Experienced air traveler listeningcasually to verbal air safety instructions (Transactional)which have new concepts, and acquire new skills.#20
aspects of listening in l t l l 5
Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L (5)
  • Affective Domain—Attitudinal Information & Emotional Information
    • Linguistic Cue for Affect
      • Linguistic Messages#24
    • Nonlinguistic Cue for Affect
      • Paralinguistic Message#25
      • Extralinguistic Messages#25
      • Intellectual, Emotional, and Moral Attitudes#26
linguistic cue for affect
Linguistic Cue for Affect
  • Linguistic Messages
    • Choosing words
    • Arranging words into sentences
    • Being dialogue discourse


    • That was an (interesting/excellent /good/fair/so-so/terrible) movie.
    • I like him a lot but…
    • Even though she’s my best friend, I must tell you that…#23
nonlinguistic cue for affect
Nonlinguistic Cue for Affect
  • Paralinguistic Messages
    • Voice is used in speaking transmits meaning by different ways.
    • Vocal elements: tone, rate, rhythm, stress.#9
  • Extralinguistic Messages
    • Body language transmitted words and vocal information.
    • Elements: postures,movements, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, talking space.#23
nonlinguistic cue for affect26
Nonlinguistic Cue for Affect
  • Intellectual Attitudes
    • Expression & Comprehension: agreement/disagreement; confirming/denying; accepting/ declining; forgetting/ remembering; possibility/ impossibility; capability/ incapability; uncertainly; obligation; permission.
  • Emotional Attitudes
  • Moral Attitudes#23
aspects of listening in l t l l 6
Aspects of Listening in L.T. & L.L (6)
  • Listening as a Language Act
    • Information Processing #10
    • Linguistic Functions #14
    • Dimensions of Cognitive processing #17
principles of listening teaching 1
Principles of Listening Teaching(1)
  • Three Materials Development Principles.
    • Relevance—content andoutcome#29
    • Transferability/Applicability—canbe used in other courses. #30
    • Task orientation—combine language use tasks and language analysis activities.#31
  • Content
    • The information input.
  • Outcome
    • Natural use of the information.
  • Face Validity for Students
    • Encouraging the intention to learn.#11
transferability applicability
  • Content Level or Outcome Level
    • Can be used in other courses
  • Foster Transfer of Training
    • The mirror of real life by activities.
      • Radio
      • Television new
      • Broadcast#11
task orientation 1
Task Orientation(1)
  • Language Use Tasks
    • Listen-and-Do communicative outcomes
      • Listening and performing actions
      • Listening and performing operation
      • Listening and solving problems
      • Listening and transcribing
      • Listening and summarizing information
      • Interactive listening and Q/A routines
task orientation 2
Task Orientation(2)
  • Language Use Tasks
    • A base on Content Experiences
      • Increase vocabulary
      • Increase predictive ability including Schemata and Scripts.
    • A base on Operational Experiences
      • Acquire ability of familiar information-handling operations.
task orientation 3
Task Orientation(3)
  • Language Analysis Activities
    • The opportunities to analyze selected aspects.
      • Language Structure—Form
      • Language Use—Function
    • To develop personal strategies.
      • Knowledgeable
task orientation 4
Task Orientation(4)
  • Specific Language Analysis Activities
    • Analysis of task of fast speed.
    • Analysis of phrasing and pause point.
    • Analysis monologues and dialogue exchange.
    • Describing and analysis sociolinguistic dimensions.
    • Describing and analysis communicative strategies.#28
time for


Q and A

See you next week

principles of listening teaching 2
Principles of Listening Teaching(2)
  • Communicative Outcomes—AnOrganizing Framework
    • Listening and Performing Actions and Operations.#37
    • Listening and Transferring Information.#38
    • Listening and Solving Problems.#39
communicative outcome 1
Communicative Outcome(1)
  • Listening and Performing Actions and Operations—Responsesto


    • Drawing something.
    • A map task.
    • Selecting work.
    • Performing a movement.
    • Operating a piece of equipment.
    • Carrying out steps in a process.#36
communicative outcome 2 listening and transferring information
Communicative Outcome(2) Listening and Transferring Information—
  • Spoken-to-Written
  • Taking a message and transferring to another person.
  • Listening and filling in blanks.
  • Listening and completing a form or chart.
  • Listening and
  • Carrying out steps in a process.
  • Listening to a how to talk and writing.
  • Listening to a speech and taking a note.
  • Spoken-to-Spoken
  • Listening to directions and passing them.
  • Listening to part of story and repeating it to others.#36
communicative outcome 3
Communicative Outcome(3)
  • Listening and Solving Problems—

Games and Puzzles

    • Words games.
    • Number games and story.
    • Asking questions.
    • careful listening to the completion of the game.
    • listening story and settle solutions.
    • A jigsaw mystery.
    • Comparison shopping task.
    • Short descriptions of court case.#36
principles of listening teaching 3
Principles of Listening Teaching(3)
  • Communicative Outcomes—

AnOrganizing Framework

    • Listening, Evaluating, and Manipulating Information.#41
    • Interactive listening-and-Speaking.#42
    • Listening for Enjoyment, Pleasure, and Sociability.#43
communicative outcome 4
Communicative Outcome(4)
  • Listening, Evaluating, and Manipulating Information—

Evaluate and Manipulate

    • Receiving information and answer questions.
    • Evaluating information.
    • Evaluating arguments.
    • Evaluating cause-and effect information.
    • Summarizing or gist of information.
    • Evaluate and combining or considering information.
    • Evaluating and extending information.
    • Organizing unordered information.#40
communicative outcome 5
Communicative Outcome(5)
  • Interactive listening-and-Speaking—produce and process
    • Repetition—Question Asking
    • Paraphrase—Different Restatement
    • Verification—Confirmation
    • Clarification—Explanation
    • Elaboration—Additional Information
    • Extension—For New Point
    • Challenge—Conclusion#40
communicative outcome 6
Communicative Outcome(6)
  • Listening for Enjoyment, Pleasure, and Sociability—

Teacher-talk and Student-talk

    • Songs
    • Stories
    • Plays
    • Poems
    • Jokes
    • Anecdotes
    • Interesting chat#40
extensive intensive listening
Extensive& IntensiveListening
  • Comparison of the Locations #45
  • Comparison of the Materials #46
  • Comparison of the Advantages #47
  • Comparison of the Disadvantages #48
  • Comparison of Roles of the Teachers
procedure of using tape material
Procedure of Using Tape Material
  • Prediction and Gist Task—First Listening
  • Listen the Tape
  • Give a Task—Get Information and Listen.
  • Return the Tape—Detail Comprehension, and Language Analysis.
  • Play again—If Students Want to do. #46
process skill strategy
Process & Skill & Strategy
  • Higher Level Process. #19
  • Lower Level Process. #20
  • The Comprehension Process.
    • Information view
    • Construct Meaning
process skill strategy52
Process & Skill & Strategy
  • Types of Strategies.
    • Metacognitive Strategy
    • Cognitive Strategy
    • Socioaffective Strategy
    • Top-down Strategy
process skill strategy53
Process & Skill & Strategy
  • Different Stages of Skills.
    • Novice Stage
    • Intermediate stage
    • Advanced Stage
  • Different Goals of Skill.
    • Techniques for Global Listening
    • Selective Listening
    • Goals and Exercises
process skill strategy54
Process & Skill & Strategy
  • Goals of Novice Stage
  • Exercises of Novice Stage
  • Goals of Intermediate Stage
  • Exercises of Intermediate Stage
  • Goals of Advanced Stage
  • Exercises of Advanced Stage
goals of novice stage
Goals of Novice Stage

Bottom-Up Processing

  • Discriminate Intonation in Sentences
  • Discriminate Phonemes
  • Listen for Morphological Ending
  • Recognize Syllable Patterns, Number of Syllables, and Word Stress
  • Be Aware of Sentence Fillers in Informal Speech
  • Select Details form the Text
goals of novice stage56
Goals of Novice Stage

Top-Down Processing

  • Discriminate Emotional Reactions
  • Get the Gist or Main Idea
  • Recognize the Topic
goals of novice stage57
Goals of Novice Stage

Interactive Processing

  • Formal or Informal by Speech Features
  • Recognize a Familiar word and Relative Category
  • Compare Information in Memory with information
  • Compare information with experience
goals of intermediate stage
Goals of Intermediate Stage

Bottom-Up Processing

  • Differences Content and Function Words by Stress Pattern
  • Find the Stressed Syllable
  • Recognize Words with Reduced Vowels or Dropped Syllables
  • Recognize Words as they are Linked in the Speech Steam
  • Recognize Pertinent Details in the Speech Stream
goals of intermediate stage59
Goals of Intermediate Stage

Top-Down Processing

  • Discriminate Register of Speech and Tones of Voice
  • Listen to Identify the Speaker or the Topic
  • Find Main Ideas and Supporting Details
  • Make Inferences
goals of intermediate stage60
Goals of Intermediate Stage

Interactive Processing

  • Use Word Stress to Understand the Speaker’s Intent
  • Recognize Missing Grammar Markers in Colloquial Speech and Reconstruct the Message
  • Use Context and Knowledge of the World to Build Listening Expectations; Listen to Confirm Expectations
goals of advanced stage
Goals of Advanced Stage

Bottom-Up Processing

  • Use Sentence Stress and Intonation to Identify Important Information
  • Recognize Contractions, Reduced Forms, Differ From the Written Form
  • Become Aware of Common Performance Slips that Must be Reinterpreted or Ignored
goals of advanced stage62
Goals of Advanced Stage

Bottom-Up Processing

  • Become Aware of Organizational Cue in Lecture Text
  • Become Aware of Lexical and Suprasegmental Markers for Definitions
  • Identify Specific Points of Information
goals of advanced stage63
Goals of Advanced Stage

Top-Down Processing

  • Use Knowledge to Predict the Content
  • Use the Introduction to Predict its Focus and Direction
  • Use the Transcript to Predict the Content of the next Section
  • Find the Main Idea of Segment
  • Recognize Concepts
goals of advanced stage64
Goals of Advanced Stage

Interactive Processing

  • Use Knowledge of Phrases and Discourse Markers to Predict the Content in the next Segment of the Lecture
  • Make Inferences about the Text
listening lesson sequences
Listening Lesson Sequences
  • Interview#52
  • Re-order#53
  • Telephone Message #55
  • Completing the Task #56
  • Sharing and Solving the problem #58
  • Daily Spoken Drill #62
  • The Sound of Music #64
Give Interview’s Question before
  • Predict the Interview
  • Bring a Strangers into classroom (Native Speaker)
  • Brief the students’ Level
  • Guess and Write down Questions
  • Ask Question and Make Notes
  • Prompt students to ask Follow-up Question
  • Write a Short Essay about person #51
Listening and put picture in the Order.
  • To say what may Happening in the picture.
  • Do not Confirm and Deny their Prediction.
  • Listen and Re-order for Correctness.
Listen again and check the orders of correctness.
  • Teacher should lead student listen again about some interest point. #51
Teachers make three Simple records of Phone Calls.
  • Asking students Take Short Messages.
  • Compare each other to see they have written same thing.
  • Listening again and Clear up any Problem.
  • Also can taking message from speaking or other materials. #51
Listen to Different Tapes.
  • Share Different Information.
  • Gather and Share Detail information to Complete the Task.
Divide into Group A and Group B listening Different Tape
  • Interview each other
  • Making Notes and Discuss information
  • Complete the Form of Task. #51
Leading a Discussion about Topic.
  • Help students Come up with Sentence Pattern.
  • Share Personal Experience.
  • Listen to Material and Look at Picture for prediction.#58
  • Discussion and Think for Solving Problem.#58
Listen ti the Extracts again for the speaker construct their discourse.
  • Check Language with teacher before moving on to use the results of their enquire in a making conversations activities.
  • Encourage them to try to Try Out the Language.#60

Listening Extracts can be used for different purpose—LanguageSkills, Language Analysis,Language Production.#51

Be studied for information about How the text is Constructed.
  • What Orders certain Functions can occur within an exchange.
  • Both Simplified and Authentic text.
  • About Normal Lives of Everyday Spoken reality.
Looking Transcript and notice real language is.

1) a request for service( line 1)

2) an acknowledgement of the request and a statement of

the price(line2-3)

3) the handing over of the goods(line4)

4) the giving of money and receiving the change(line5-6)

5) a closure of the encounter(line7-8) #51

Students’ song or Teacher’s song
  • Pre-discussion→Worksheet#64→Instructions → Compare and Check answers→ Listen again→ Read the answer with song → Asking question about song→ Explanation→ Listen again
time for80


Q and A