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  1. A and P Midterm Review

  2. Types of Tissue • 1. Epithelial tissue: covers and protects the body surface, lines body cavities, specializes in moving substance into and out of blood (secretion, excretion, and absorption), and forms many glands. • 2. Connective tissue: Supports body and its parts to hold and connect it together, transport substances and protect it from foreign invaders. • 3. Muscle Tissue: produces movement; it moves the body and its parts. Cells are specialized for contractility and produce movement by shortening fibers. • 4. Nervous Tissue: Most complex. Communication between parts and integration of activities. Major function is the generation of complex messages form coordination of body function.

  3. Membranes (covering and lining) • Functions: • 1. Protection – Skin- tough impermeable epithelial covering • 2. Sensory- In the eye, skin, nose, and ear . • 3. Secretion- glandular 4. Absorption- gut (nutrients) and respiratory tract (oxygen and CO2 exchange) • 5. Excretion- Kidney tubules, concentrates urine Epithelial Tissue

  4. Made predominantly of matrix of intercellular material with few cells ie. The matrix of blood is plasma   Fibers maybe: Collagenous- white tough and strong (ligaments) Reticular- delicate- surrounding organs Elastic- vocal cords Characteristics of Connective Tissue

  5. Skeletal- Muscle to bone attachment. Voluntary. Tissue is striated Smooth –Muscle in organs(visceral tissue), involuntary, non striated Cardiac- Wall of heart. Striated but involuntary. Characteristic is intercalated disc. Muscle Tissue

  6. Brain, Spinal cord and nerves Basic cell= Nerve cells (NEURONS) and neuroglia, which are supporting cells. Nervous Tissue

  7. Cell Organelles • Nucleus- plans for proteins, contains DNA • Mitochondria- powerhouse of cell • Lysosomes- recycle material • Golgi- pack sorts and delivers proteins, • Cytoplasma- cushions provides nutrients • Membrane-maintains homeostasis • Vacuole- temporary storage

  8. Skin

  9. Layers of the epidermis

  10. 1. Stratum Corneum (top layer) • Dead cells filled with keratin (barrier area) 2. Stratum Lucidum (clear layer) cells filled with keratin precursor called eleidin absent in thin skin. 3. Stratum granulosum (granular layer) cells arranged 2-3 layers and filled with keratohyalin granules that contain a high # of lysosomes ( to digest the cytoplasm as it is replaced with keratin Cell Layers of Epidermis

  11. 4. Stratum Spinosum (spiny layer) cells arranged in 8-10 layers with prominent desmosomes (strong connections between cells appear spiny in microscope): Rich in RNA which is necessary for the protein synthesis of Keratin. 5. Stratum basale (base layer) single layer of columnar cells: only these cells undergo mitosis and then migrate through the other layers until they are shed. Cell layers- epidermis continued

  12. 4.The pigment that gives you skin color is called what? • 5. What is the purpose of the skeletal system? Muscular system? Nervous system?

  13. Bone Structure • Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue, so it must consist of cells plus a significant amount of extracellular matrix. • Bone cells: • Osteoblasts • Bone-building cells. • Synthesize and secrete collagen fibers and other organic components of bone matrix. • Initiate the process of calcification. • Found in both the periosteum and the endosteum The blue arrows indicate the osteoblasts. The yellow arrows indicate the bone matrix they’ve just secreted.

  14. Bone Structure Yellow arrows indicate osteocytes – notice how they are surrounded by the pinkish bone matrix. Blue arrow shows an osteoblast in the process of becoming an osteocyte. 2. Osteocytes • Mature bone cells. • Osteoblasts that have become trapped by the secretion of matrix. • No longer secrete matrix. • Responsible for maintaining the bone tissue. On the right, notice how the osteocyte is “trapped” within the pink matrix

  15. 3. Osteoclasts • Huge cells derived from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes (a type of white blood cell). • Cells that digest bone matrix – this process is called bone resorption and is part of normal bone growth, development, maintenance, and repair. • Concentrated in the endosteum. • On the side of the cell that faces the bone surface, the PM is deeply folded into a ruffled border. Here, the osteoclast secretes digestive enzymes (how might this occur?) to digest the bone matrix. It also pumps out hydrogen ions (how might this occur?) to create an acid environment that eats away at the matrix. What advantage might a ruffled border confer? • Why do we want a cell that eats away at bone? (Hint: bone is a very dynamic tissue.)

  16. The diagram below represents a long bone shaft in cross-section. Each yellow circle represents an osteon. The blue represents additional matrix filling in the space btwn osteons. The white in the middle is the marrow cavity. Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone • Consists of multiple cylindrical structural units known as osteons or haversian systems. • Imagine these osteons as weight-bearing pillars that are arranged parallel to one another along the long axis of a compact bone.

  17. Osteons • Each osteon consists of a single central canal, known as a haversian canal, surrounded by concentric layers of calcified bone matrix. • Haversian canals allow the passage of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers. • Each of the concentric matrix “tubes” that surrounds a haversian canal is known as a lamella. • All the collagen fibers in a particular lamella run in a single direction, while collagen fibers in adjacent lamellae will run in the opposite direction. This allows bone to better withstand twisting forces.

  18. Running perpendicular to the haversian canals are Volkmann’s canals. They connect the blood and nerve supply in the periosteum to those in the haversian canals and the medullary cavity.

  19. Bone Classification Femur  • 4 types of bones: • Long Bones • Much longer than they are wide. • All bones of the limbs except for the patella (kneecap), and the bones of the wrist and ankle. • Consists of a shaft plus 2 expanded ends. • Your finger bones are long bones even though they’re very short – how can this be? • Short Bones • Roughly cube shaped. • Bones of the wrist and the ankle. Carpal Bones

  20. Bone Classification • Types of bones: • Flat Bones • Thin, flattened, and usually a bit curved. • Scapulae, sternum, (shoulder blades), ribs and most bones of the skull. • Irregular Bones • Have weird shapes that fit none of the 3 previous classes. • Vertebrae, hip bones, 2 skull bones ( sphenoid and the ethmoid bones). Sternum Sphenoid Bone

  21. Long Bone • Labeling

  22. The Motor Unit= Neuromuscular junctions (nerve meets muscle)

  23. Oval window Stirrup Anvil Semicircular canals Hammer Cochlear nerve Cochlea Bone Auditory canal Tympanum Round window Eustachian tube Figure 35-15 The Ear Section 35-4

  24. Somatotype- a particular category of body build and physique • Endomorph- Heavy rounded physique characterized by large accumulations of fat in the trunk and thighs. • Mesomorph-Muscular physique • Ectomorph- thin fragile physique characterized by little body fat accumulation.

  25. Examples

  26. Knee

  27. Tendon

  28. ATP and Muscle Contraction ppt

  29. 3 Major Parts of the brain and their function • Cerebrum- conscious awareness • Cerebellum- balance, posture and coordination of movement. • Brainstem- Regulates involuntary activities like temp, heart rate, breathing

  30. 4 lobes of the brain and their function • Frontal lobe- intellectual power • Temporal Lobe- Primarily hearing and speech • Occipital Lobe- receive and interprets visual information • Parietal lobe- Sensory reception and processing

  31. JOINTS: Where 2 bones meet. • Facilitate the movement of bones in relation to one another.

  32. 1. Origin- point of attachment that does not move when the muscle contracts. 2. Insertion- point of attachment that moves when the muscle contracts Attachment of Muscles

  33. Movement • Abduct • Adduct • Flex • Extend • Lateral flexion • Rotation • Circumduction

  34. Segment of myofibril between two successive Z lines Each myofibril consists of many sarcomeres Contractile unit of the muscle fiber Sarcomere

  35. Labeling  • Body Directional Terms on Final • Brachial • Carpal • Femoral • Posterior • Axillary • Cervical • Orbital • Patellar • Buccal Lumbar Anterior Cranial Caudal

  36. Neuron • Label: node of Ranvier, axon, dendrite, synaptic junction, myelin

  37. Motor Unit

  38. Anatomy of the brain Section 36.1 Summary – pages 943 - 950 Cerebrum Motor area Sensory area Speech area Language area Vision area Taste area General interpretation area Intellect, learning, and personality Balance area Hearing area Brain stem Cerebellum

  39. Sarcomere

  40. Human Skeletal Bones

  41. WE ARE DONE!!! Half way through your senior year!! It only gets faster from here.