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  1. Governance and Finance: Regulating and Funding Schools ED 1010

  2. Tenth Amendment • The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

  3. Utah State Constitution • Article X, Section 1.[Free nonsectarian schools.]The Legislature shall provide for the establishment and maintenance of the state's education systems including: (a) a public education system, which shall be open to all children of the state; and (b) a higher education system. Both systems shall be free from sectarian control.

  4. Utah State Constitution • Article X, Section 2.[Defining what shall constitute the public school system.]     The public education system shall include all public elementary and secondary schools and such other schools and programs as the Legislature may designate. The higher education system shall include all public universities and colleges and such other institutions and programs as the Legislature may designate. Public elementary and secondary schools shall be free, except the Legislature may authorize the imposition of fees in the secondary schools.

  5. Utah State Constitution • Article X, Section 3.[State Board of Education.]     The general control and supervision of the public education system shall be vested in a State Board of Education. The membership of the board shall be established and elected as provided by statute. The State Board of Education shall appoint a State Superintendent of Public Instruction who shall be the executive officer of the board.

  6. On another topic . . . • Article X, Section 9.[Public aid to church schools forbidden.]     Neither the state of Utah nor its political subdivisions may make any appropriation for the direct support of any school or educational institution controlled by any religious organization. Vouchers, anyone?

  7. State Constitution State courts, Governor, State Legislature State Board of Education State Superintendent State Office of Education Local School Districts District School Board District Superintendent District Office Principals and Schools

  8. State Board of Education Functions • Issuing and revoking teaching licenses • Establishing the length of the school year • Publishing standards for approving and accrediting schools • Developing and implementing uniform systems for gathering education data, such as standardized achievement test scores, enrollment trends, and demographics

  9. State Office of Education • Responsible for implementing state board of education policies on a day-to-day basis • Creates list of state-approved textbooks • Establishes standards in different content areas •

  10. School District How many in Utah? • Administrative unit legally responsible for the education of children within a geographic boundary • Governed by a local school board of lay citizens responsible for setting policies within the district • Approximately 14,000 school districts in U.S.; an average of 280 per state • Number of school districts in a state ranges from 1 (Hawaii) to 1,040 (Texas)

  11. School Board • Responsible for establishing educational policies within a district • Lay members elected in local elections • Members often do not reflect the cultural and economic diversity within a district • • Other school boards

  12. School District Superintendent • Implements policies established by local school board • Usually has an advanced degree in education • Sometimes conflicts with school board over implementation of policies

  13. Functions of the District Office • Ordering textbooks and supplies • Developing programs of study • Ordering, distributing, and analyzing standardized tests • Evaluating teachers and assisting those with difficulties

  14. Principal • Given the ultimate responsibility for the running of a school • Most important person in the district administrative structure, because the principal works directly with teachers and students

  15. Principal (continued) • Responsible for: • Teacher selection and evaluation • School-level curricular and instructional leadership • Community relations • Coordination of pupil services (counselors, school psychologists, etc.) • Monitoring of school budget • Ensuring school maintenance

  16. Finance

  17. Whose responsibility is it to fund public education? • Federal Government • Federal programs • State Legislature • Minimum school program act • 53A-17a • • Local Board of Education • Property taxes • School fees

  18. School Funding Sources • States contribute 49% of educational funds • Local governments contribute 43% of funds • Federal funds constitute 8% of educational monies • What about Utah? • •

  19. State Revenue Sources • Property taxes based on home and real estate values (a portion of property tax can be sent to the state) • Income tax • Building permits • Traffic fines • Use permits for educational facilities

  20. Federal Funding of Education • Small proportion (8% nationally), but large impact • Categorical grants target specific groups and designated purposes • Block grants provide states and districts funds with few restrictions

  21. District Educational Expenditures • Largest percentage (61% - 70% Utah) spent on instruction • Administration, instructional supports (student services, teacher professional development, curriculum development), and maintenance of physical plants each take 10% of education funding dollar. • Transportation (buses) and food services each take up 4% of districts’ budgets.

  22. Funding Inequalities • Because of differences in property taxes, wealthy districts spend more on education than poorer ones. • 23% more nationally • About twice as much within certain states • Legal issues surrounding funding inequalities determined by state laws and courts • Weighted student formula allocates funding to schools within a district based upon student and school needs. • Issues related to western states • • Funding simulation

  23. Site-Based Decision Making • Attempts to place increased responsibility for governance at the individual school level • Teachers generally feel excluded from decision-making loop. • Can also involve community lay members in school governance

  24. Different Forms of School Choice • Charter schools • Vouchers • Homeschooling

  25. Charter Schools • Alternative schools that are independently operated but publicly funded • Often target specific areas of the curriculum • Arts • Math and science • Foreign language • Uneven quality due to increased autonomy • Research suggests that student achievement is no better than regular public schools and sometimes worse.

  26. Vouchers • Vouchers are checks parents use to purchase educational services. • Use for private education, especially religious schools, is controversial. • State tuition tax credits, a variation on vouchers, provide tax cuts for parents of children attending private schools. • •

  27. Homeschooling • While increasingly popular, accounts for only 2% of students. • Parental reasons vary. • Concerns about moral climate of schools (49%) • More positive social climate (15%) • Academic excellence (14%) • Specific needs of individual students (12%) • State laws regulating vary considerably. •

  28. Privatization • Takes a variety of forms • EMO (Education maintenance organization) runs and manages schools or entire district • Industry-operated school lunches and buses • Industry-related tech support • Arguments for • Businesslike efficiency of corporations • Competition makes publicly run schools more effective and efficient • Arguments against • Bottom line is the dollar—not children’s welfare • Unimpressive initial results with corporations like Edison

  29. School Choice and Cultural Minorities • Advocates claim that school choice provides cultural minority parents with alternatives to ineffective and unproductive local schools. • May result in increased segregation of students. • Education of parents about options and choices is crucial for future success.