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Arts and Humanities Exit Exam. MUSIC REVIEW. Elements of Music . Rhythm Tempo Melody Harmony Form Timbre Dynamics. Rhythm. The pattern of notes and rests Important Rhythm Terms Syncopation Placing emphasis on the weak or off beats Meter (AKA Time Signature) 3 Types Simple: 4/4

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elements of music
Elements of Music
  • Rhythm
  • Tempo
  • Melody
  • Harmony
  • Form
  • Timbre
  • Dynamics
rhythm
Rhythm
  • The pattern of notes and rests
  • Important Rhythm Terms
    • Syncopation
      • Placing emphasis on the weak or off beats
    • Meter
      • (AKA Time Signature)
      • 3 Types
        • Simple: 4/4
        • Compound: 6/8
        • Asymmetrical: 5/4
note and rest values
Note and Rest Values
  • Whole Note= 4 beats
  • Half Note= 2 beats
  • Quarter Note= 1 beat
  • Eighth Note= ½ beat
  • Sixteenth Note= ¼ beat
tempo
Tempo
  • The speed of the music
  • Accelerando
    • Gradually speed up
  • Ritardando
    • Gradually slow down
tempo markings
Tempo Markings
  • Largo
    • Very slow
  • Andante
    • Walking speed
  • Moderato
    • Medium speed
  • Allegro
    • Fast tempo
  • Presto
    • Very fast
melody
Melody
  • The main part of the song that can be hummed by the listener
  • Key Signature
    • Sharps and flats placed @ the beginning of the music that show the scale on which the music is based.
harmony
Harmony
  • Two or more notes sounded together
  • Consonance
    • Harmony that is pleasing to the listener
  • Dissonance
    • Harmony that is “harsh” to the listener
slide9
Form
  • The way the music is organized
  • Opera Forms
    • Overture
      • Introduction for operas and ballets
    • Aria
      • Song for solo voice that is very melodic in character
    • Recitative
      • Song sung in a speaking manner
types of forms
Types of Forms
  • AB
    • 2 contrasting sections
  • ABA
    • 2 contrasting sections that repeats back to the 1st section
  • Call and Response
    • One group performs and another group echoes
  • Theme and Variations
    • Basic melody performed in a variety of ways
timbre
Timbre
  • The unique characteristic of sound
  • VOCAL TIMBRES
    • Soprano
      • High Female Voice
    • Alto
      • Low Female Voice
    • Tenor
      • High Male Voice
    • Bass
      • Low Male Voice
instrument families
INSTRUMENT FAMILIES
  • Woodwind
    • Flute, Clarinet, Saxophone, Oboe, Bassoon
  • Brass
    • Trumpet, French Horn, Trombone, Tuba
  • String
    • Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass, Guitar
  • Percussion
    • Drums, Xylophone, Tambourine, Cymbals
dynamics
Dynamics
  • The loudness or softness of music
  • Pianissimo (pp) Very Soft
  • Piano (p) Soft
  • Mezzo Piano (mp) Moderately Soft
  • Mezzo Forte (mf) Moderately Loud
  • Forte (f) Loud
  • Fortissimo (ff) Very Loud
music symbols
Music Symbols
  • Staff
  • Treble Clef
  • Bass Clef
  • Sharp
  • Flat
  • Natural
symbols cont
Symbols, cont.
  • Crescendo
  • Decrescendo
  • Accent
  • Fermata
  • Coda
more symbols
More symbols
  • DC- Repeat to the beginning
  • DS- Repeat to the sign
  • Fine-The End
renaissance period
Renaissance Period
  • Most important composer
    • Giovanni Palestrina
  • He utilized the

“counterpoint” system

baroque period
Baroque Period
  • Important Composers
    • George Frederic Handel
      • Known for oratorios (“The Messiah”)
    • Johann Sebastian Bach
      • Cantatas for his church services
  • Fugue- An imitative style of

composition developed

during this period

classical period
Classical Period
  • Important Composers
    • Franz Josef Haydn
      • “The father of the Symphony”
    • Ludwig Van Beethoven
      • Most well known is his “5th Symphony”
romantic period
Romantic Period
  • Important Composers
    • Richard Wagner
      • Known for his operas
      • Ride of the Valkyries
      • The Flying Dutchman
    • Peter Tchaikovsky
      • Known for his ballets
      • The Nutcracker, Swan Lake,

Romeo & Juliet

impressionism
Impressionism
  • Important Composers
    • Claude Debussy
    • Maurice Ravel
  • Both composers incorporated symbolism into their music
modern period
Modern Period
  • Jazz Music
    • Combines spirituals, blues, and improvisation to create a new and unique style
  • Improvisation
    • To create music

spontaneously

(“on the spot”)

american music
American Music
  • George Gershwin
    • Incorporated Jazz elements into classical music
    • Rhapsody in Blue
    • An American in Paris
slide24
Aaron Copland
    • Used American folk songs and ideas in his music
    • Appalachian Spring
    • Billy the Kid
slide25
Duke Ellington
    • Helped shape jazz styles in American music
    • Take the A Train
    • Mood Indigo
purposes of music
Purposes of Music
  • Ceremonial
    • Music for ceremonies and rituals
    • Star Spangled Banner, Wedding March
  • Artistic
    • Music used to express emotion
    • Ballet Music
  • Recreational
    • Music for Fun
    • Dance Music