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PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. ADIL K. WARSY M.D. PGYV PULMONARY FELLOW. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES. None. OBJECTIVES. Learn to define the disorder Classification and prevalence Pathophysiology and histopathology Presentation Screening and diagnostic methods Functional classification

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pulmonary hypertension

PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

ADIL K. WARSY M.D.

PGYV PULMONARY FELLOW

objectives
OBJECTIVES
  • Learn to define the disorder
  • Classification and prevalence
  • Pathophysiology and histopathology
  • Presentation
  • Screening and diagnostic methods
  • Functional classification
  • Treatment approaches
  • Prognosis
  • PAH and pregnancy
definitions
DEFINITIONS
  • PULMONARY ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

Syndrome resulting from restricted blood flow through

the pulmonary arterial circulation from vascular

proliferation, aberrant remodeling and in situthrombosis

resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance and

ultimately right sided heart failure.

  • Hemodynamic state characterized by

- Sustained elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure

to >25mm Hg at rest or >30mm Hg with exercise

-Mean PCWP and LVEDP<15mm Hg

pulmonary and systemic circulation
PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
  • Standard pressures

-Mean pulmonary artery pressure, 14mm Hg

-PCWP, 8-12 mm Hg

-LVEDP, 6-12 mm Hg

-Systemic arterial pressure <120/80 mm Hg

  • PAH pressures

-Mean pulmonary artery pressure > 25mm Hg

-PCWP and LVEDP < 15 mm Hg

-Systemic arterial pressure < 120/80 mm Hg

incidence prevalence
INCIDENCE/PREVALENCE
  • PAH is rare
    • Estimated prevalence of 3050 cases per million
    • Most common in young women
  • Mean age of diagnosis 36 years
  • The prevalence in certain at-risk groups is higher
    • HIV-infected patients (0.50%)
    • Sickle cell disease (2040%)
    • Systemic sclerosis (16%)5
  • True prevalence may be higher
classification
CLASSIFICATION
  • OLD CLASSIFICATION

Primary and Secondary

  • In 1998 it was proposed to classify based on

-Disorders in between the ones affecting the arterial part of

pulmonary circulation

-Disorders affecting venous part of the circulation

-Disorders affecting the circulation by altered respiratory function.

classification1
CLASSIFICATION
  • Third World Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension, held in Venice, Italy, in 2003.

The major changes noted in these revisions were as follows:

(1)Replacement of the term primary PH with

-Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH)

-Familial pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH) when supported

by genetic testing,

(2) Abandonment of the term secondary PH

who classification
WHO CLASSIFICATION
  • Group I.Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)
  • Idiopathic (IPAH)
  • Familial (FPAH)
  • Associated with (APAH):
    • Connective tissue disease
    • Congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts-Eisenmenger’s syndrome
    • Portal hypertension
    • HIV infection
    • Drugs and toxins
    • Other (thyroid disorders, glycogen storage disease, Gaucher's disease, hereditary

haemorrhagic telangiectasia, haemoglobinopathies, myeloproliferative disorders,

splenectomy

  • Associated with significant venous or capillary involvement
    • Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD)
    • Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH)
  • Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN)
who classification1
WHO CLASSIFICATION
  • Group II. Pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart

diseases

  • Group III. Pulmonary hypertension associated with respiratory

diseases and / or hypoxemia (including COPD)

  • Group IV. Pulmonary hypertension due to chronic thrombotic

and/or embolic disease

-Thromboembolic obstruction of proximal pulmonary arteries

-Thromboembolic obstruction of distal pulmonary arteries

-Pulmonary embolism (tumor, parasites, foreign material)

-Sickle cell disease

  • Group V. Miscellaneous group eg. sarcoidosis, histiocytosis X and

lymphangiomatosis

who group i
WHO GROUP I
  • IPAH (idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

- Leading cause almost 40% of the cases

- No risk factor, family history or genetic

mutation.

- More common in women

- Mean age 52

who group i1
WHO GROUP I
  • FPAH (Familial pulmonary arterial hypertension)

- At least 100 families have been identified world wide

- Accounts for >6% of all cases of PAH

- Pedigree analysis shows an autosomal dominant inheritance with

reduced penetrance ( 10% to 20% of carriers are affected)

- Two genes in TGF-B receptor family have been linked to FPAH

- BMPR-2 and ALK-1

- Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) have been detected in approx. 71% of patients with FPAH

- Mutations in BMPR2 have been detected in 26% of IPAH cases

pathophysiology
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • Exact cause of PAH remains unknown
  • Endothelial dysfunction occurs early on in the disease

process

  • Endothelial dysfunction results in
    • Reduced production of vasodilators
    • Over production of vasoconstrictors
    • Endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation
    • Remodelling of the pulmonary vascular bed and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR)
  • Increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR)
    • Leads to right ventricular overload
    • Leads to right ventricular failure and premature death
pathophysiology1
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • Three pathways are involved:

1. Prostacyclin (prostaglandin)

2. Nitric oxide (NO)− Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

( GMP)- phosphodiesterase 5

3. Endothelin

  • Platelets likely play an important role as pro-coagulants by increasing the platelet release of serotonin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor.
pathophysiology2
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • Reduced production of vasodilators
    • Prostacyclin
      • potent vasodilator
      • potent inhibitor of platelet activation
      • therapy with synthetic forms of prostacyclin may help to correct this deficiency
    • Nitric oxide
      • potent vasodilator
      • possesses anti-proliferative properties
      • vasodilatory effect is mediated by cGMP
        • rapidly degraded by phosphodiesterases
pathophysiology3
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • Increased production of vasoactive compounds
    • Endothelin (ET)
      • elevated levels are seen in PAH patients
      • levels correlate with disease severity
      • deleterious effects mediated through ETA and ETB receptors5
        • fibrosis
        • hypertrophy and cell proliferation
        • inflammation
        • vasoconstriction
      • Endothelin receptor antagonists can block these effects
  • ET, nitric oxide and Prostacyclin have been the principal focus of research into treatments for PAH
presentation
PRESENTATION

SYMPTOMS

  • High resistance to blood flow through the lungs causes right heart dysfunction and produces:
    • Dyspnea
    • Fatigue
    • Dizziness
    • Syncope
    • Peripheral edema
    • Anginal chest pain, particularly during physical exercise
    • Hemoptysis
    • Hoarseness
    • Anorexia
    • RUQ discomfort
  • Symptoms are non-specific and are commonly attributed to other conditions
  • Over time, symptoms become more severe and limit normal daily activities
presentation1
PRESENTATION

CLINICAL SIGNS

  • Jugular venous distension
  • Prominent P2
  • Right ventricle heave
  • Tricuspid insufficiency murmur
  • Right side S3 heart sound
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Peripheral edema
why it is a diagnostic dilemma
WHY IT IS A DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA?
  • Low awareness/not a condition seen every day by general physicians
  • It often comes in disguise:
    • Non-specific symptoms that are often mild and common to other conditions
    • Confusion with other diseases such as asthma, COPD and other cardiovascular disorders
  • No simple means of excluding PAH
stepwise approach to diagnose
STEPWISE APPROACH TO DIAGNOSE

Diagnosis requires a series of investigations in a four-stage approach:

  • Clinical suspicion of pulmonary hypertension

Symptoms, screening and incidental findings

  • Detection of pulmonary hypertension

ECG, chest radiograph, Doppler echocardiography

  • Identification of other causes of pulmonary HTN

Pulmonary function test, blood gas samples, HRCT

  • PAH evaluation and classification

Functional capacity and hemodynamics

screening high risk population
SCREENING HIGH RISK POPULATION
  • Key to early diagnosis – screening high risk populations:
    • Family members of a patient with familial Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (FPAH)
    • Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)
    • Patients with HIV
    • Patients with portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH)
  • International guidelines recommend annual screening with Doppler echocardiography.1-3
  • Right heart catheterisation still only method for definitive diagnosis
tools for screening
TOOLS FOR SCREENING
  • Clinical suspicion
  • History and Physical
  • Doppler echocardiography.
screening high risk population1
SCREENING HIGH RISK POPULATION
  • Results of a disease registry in France:
    • Without screening, the majority of patients were diagnosed in WHO FC III or FC IV, and only 24% of patients were in WHO FC II at diagnosis.
echocardiography
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

Specificity moderate : PAP overestimated in patients with advanced lung disease

noninvasive testing
NONINVASIVE TESTING
  • Full PFTs with DLCO help identify

COPD

Interstitial lung disease

  • ABG
  • CT scan

Lung pathology

Pulmonary embolism

  • HRCT

Interstitial lung disease

clarify etiology
CLARIFY ETIOLOGY
  • Patients with PAH on echocardiogram
  • H/O EDS, snoring, apneas

Obtain NPSG

  • Arthralgias, arthritis, myalgias, skin lesions

Obtain serology for CTD

  • Risk of/ exposure to HIV
  • Screen for CTEPH

Many patients will not have h/o VTE

VQ scan should be ordered.

right heart catheterisation the gold standard1
RIGHT HEART CATHETERISATION-THE GOLD STANDARD
  • RHC should always assess
    • right atrial pressure (RAP)
    • systolic, diastolic and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP)
    • pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)
    • cardiac output / index
    • PVR and systemic vascular resistance
    • blood pressure and arterial and mixed venous oxygen saturation
  • RHC can assess vaso-reactive response
    • shown in only 1015% of patients
    • sustained response is shown in less than 7% of patients
vasoreactivity
VASOREACTIVITY
  • Testing is done with right heart catheterization
  • Defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure decrease by at least 10 mm Hg to a level below 40 mm Hg, with no decrease in cardiac output.
  • Agents approved

- Epoprostenol IV

- Adenosine IV

- Nitric oxide inhaled

functional assessment
FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT
  • WHO functional classification
  • 6 minute walk test (6 MWT)

- Reliable, validated

- Correlates with survival

- Common endpoint in therapeutic trials

who functional classification
WHO FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION
  • There are four WHO functional classes (WHO FC)
    • WHO FC I being the least severe
    • WHO FC IV being the most advanced

Different classes reflect the impact on a patient’s life in terms of physical activity and symptoms

who functional classification1
WHO FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION
  • Class I

Patients with pulmonary hypertension but without resulting limitation of physical activity. Ordinary physical activity does not cause dyspnea or fatigue, chest pain or near syncope

  • Class II

Patients with pulmonary hypertension resulting in slight limitation of physical activity. They are comfortable at rest. Ordinary physical activity causes undue dyspnea or fatigue, chest pain or near syncope

  • Class III

Patients with pulmonary hypertension resulting in marked limitation of physical activity. They are comfortable at rest. Less than ordinary activity causes undue dyspnea or fatigue, chest pain or near syncope

  • Class IV

Patients with pulmonary hypertension with inability to carry out any physical activity without symptoms. These patients manifest signs of right heart failure. Dyspnea and/or fatigue may even be present at rest

6 minute walk test
6 MINUTE WALK TEST
  • The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is an evaluation of exercise capacity in patients with PAH and is used to determine the functional class and is also a prognostic indicator
  • The 6-MWT is a critical endpoint in clinical studies assessing therapeutic options
  • The 6-MWT should be performed under supervision and according to a standardised protocol
biomarkers
BIOMARKERS
  • N- TERMINAL Pro BNP
  • Hyponatremia

- Neuro hormonally released Vasopressin

induced

- Strongly associated with RHF and poor

prognosis

treatment
TREATMENT
  • There is currently no cure for PAH
  • Prognosis is influenced by the status of WHO FC when treatment is started – those who start therapy in WHO FC I or II demonstrate a better prognosis than those whose therapy is started in the more severe stages1
  • By recognizing and treating patients as early as possible, disease progression may be delayed
  • Without treatment, patients in WHO FC II can rapidly deteriorate within 6 months to more advanced PAH as evidenced by progression of symptoms.
treatment strategy
TREATMENT STRATEGY
  • Prevention
  • Screening of high risk patients
  • Optimize therapy for related disease
  • Supportive treatment ( aimed at consequences of PAH)
  • Vascular targeted therapy (aimed at reducing/ reversing vasoconstriction, proliferation)
  • Surgical ( atrial septostomy, lung transplantation)
supportive
SUPPORTIVE

Anticoagulants - warfarin for prevention against in situ thrombosis

INR goal is 2-2.5

Diuretics – for treatment of right heart failure

Oxygen therapy – to maintain oxygen saturation at >90% at all times

Pneumococcal and yearly influenza vaccination

Digoxin

Avoidance of

High altitudes

Air travel

Pregnancy

NSAID

Tobacco use

Heavy exertion

Beta blockers

Decongestant medications

High Sodium diet

Appetite suppressants

vascular targeted therapies
VASCULAR TARGETED THERAPIES
  • Prostacyclin pathway

Beraprost (PO)

Ilioprost (Inhaled)

Epoprostenol (IV)

Treprostinil (SQ,IV, inhaled)

  • NO pathway

Dipyridamole(PO)

Nitric oxide (inhaled)

Sildenafal (PO)

Taladafil (PO)

  • Endothelin pathway

Ambrisentan (PO) ER-A antagonist

Bosentan(PO) non selective

calcium channel blockers
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
  • Never given empirically
  • Reserved for “responders”

-Near normalization (PAP to 40 mm) and normal CO

-High dose nifedipine or diltiazem

-Only half of responders will have long term benefit

-Response monitored and with deterioration

treatment escalated

slide49

 Survival in patients with IPAH based on acute vasoreactivity and treatment with warfarin. In patients who were not vasoreactive, warfarin was associated with a modest survival advantage versus nonreactive patients who were not on warfarin.  (Redrawn from Rich S, Kaufmann RN, Levy PS: The effect of high doses of calcium-channel blockers on survival in primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 327:76–81, 1992.)

combination therapy
COMBINATION THERAPY
  • Maximize therapy while minimize toxicity
  • 8 trials with 1600 patients published

various combinations

6MWT as the primary endpoint 12 -16 weeks

showed only modest improvement

  • Recommended for Class III and IV who fail to

improve or class II with deterioration

surgical options
SURGICAL OPTIONS
  • Atrial septostomy

-Reduced RVEDP, increased CI, increased exercise capacity at

expense of decreased PaO2

-Option in patients unresponsive to max Rx

-Bridge to transplantation

  • Lung transplantation

-Typically bilateral lung transplantation

-Heart-lung transplantation in patients with PAH secondary to

congenital heart disease

  • Pulmonary thromboendarterectomyfor patients with CTEPH
prognosis
PROGNOSIS
  • 15 % one year mortality on modern therapy
  • Markers of poor outcome

-High functional class

-Poor performance on 6 MWT

-High RA pressure

-Significant RV dysfunction

-RV failure

-Low Cardiac index

-Elevated N terminal Pro-BNP

-Hyponatremia

pah and pregnancy
PAH and PREGNANCY
  • Mortality rate approaches 30%
  • Contraception is strongly recommended in women of child bearing age with PAH
  • Mechanical contraception (IUD) or surgical sterilization is recommended
summary
Summary
  • PAH is a complex disease involving vascular proliferation, inflammation & remodeling
  • Unexplained dyspnea should be worked up in a stepwise fashion
  • Good history and physical can give clues towards the diagnosis and etiology
  • Diagnosis in early stage leads to early treatment and better outcome.
  • Echocardiogram is an internationally recommended screening tool.
  • Right heart catheterization is needed for definitive diagnosis
  • Calcium channel blockers are to not be used empirically
  • Vascular targeted therapies now available and improve quality of life and mortality.
  • Mortality remains high even with the modern pharmacologic interventions
  • Pregnancy is contraindicated because of high mortality
refrences
REFRENCES
  • Pulmonary Board review 25th edition
  • www.phaonline.org
  • Murray and nadel’s “Textbook of respiratory medicine” 5th edition.
  • Gilead sciences inc.