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M ARIO F . T RIOLA PowerPoint Presentation
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M ARIO F . T RIOLA
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  1. STATISTICS ELEMENTARY MARIO F. TRIOLA EIGHTH EDITION

  2. STATISTICS ELEMENTARY Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics MARIO F. TRIOLA EIGHTH EDITION

  3. 1-1 Overview 1-2 The Nature of Data 1-3 Uses and Abuses of Statistics 1-4 Design of Experiments Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics

  4. Statistics Two Meanings Specific numbers Method of analysis 1-1 Overview

  5. Specific number numerical measurement determined by a set of data Example: Twenty-three percent of people polled believed that there are too many polls. Statistics

  6. Method of analysis a collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data Statistics

  7. Population the complete collection of all elements (scores, people, measurements, and so on) to be studied. The collection is complete in the sense that it includes all subjects to be studied. Definitions

  8. Census the collection of data from every element in a population Sample a subcollection of elements drawn from a population Definitions

  9. Parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population Definitions

  10. Parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population Definitions population parameter

  11. Definitions • Statistic • a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample

  12. sample statistic Definitions • Statistic • a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample

  13. Definitions • Quantitative data • numbers representing counts or measurements

  14. Definitions • Quantitative data • numbers representing counts or measurements • Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data • can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristics

  15. Definitions • Quantitative data • the incomes of college graduates

  16. Definitions • Quantitative data • the incomes of college graduates • Qualitative (or categorical or attribute) data • the genders (male/female) of college graduates

  17. Discrete data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . Definitions

  18. Discrete data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number of possible values 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . Continuous (numerical) data result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps Definitions 2 3

  19. Discrete The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day. Definitions

  20. Discrete The number of eggs that hens lay; for example, 3 eggs a day. Continuous The amounts of milk that cows produce; for example, 2.343115 gallons a day. Definitions

  21. nominal level of measurement characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only. The data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme (such as low to high) Example: survey responses yes, no, undecided Definitions

  22. ordinal level of measurement involves data that may be arranged in some order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Example: Course grades A, B, C, D, or F Definitions

  23. interval level of measurement like the ordinal level, with the additional property that the difference between any two data values is meaningful. However, there is no natural zero starting point (where none of the quantity is present) Example: Years 1000, 2000, 1776, and 1492 Definitions

  24. ratio level of measurement the interval level modified to include the natural zero starting point (where zero indicates that none of the quantity is present). For values at this level, differences and ratios are meaningful. Example: Prices of college textbooks Definitions

  25. Nominal- categories only Ordinal- categories with some order Interval- differences but no natural starting point Ratio- differences and a natural starting point Levels of Measurement

  26. Nominal- categories only Ordinal- categories with some order Interval- differences but no natural starting point Ratio- differences and a natural starting point Levels of Measurement